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Volume 49 Issue 9, September 2017

Focus Review

  • Focus Review |

    This focus review describes the utilization of M13 phage, a filamentous virus, for the development of a novel class of materials. Recently, the preparation of ordered structures composed of M13 phages based on liquid crystal formation has generated great interest as a means of utilizing the outstanding properties of phages for the development of novel soft materials. The combination of genetic engineering-based functionalization and liquid crystal formation can be effectively used to develop structurally regular hybrid materials composed of M13 phages and inorganic or organic materials. M13 phages can be used for various functional soft materials.

    • Toshiki Sawada

Original Article

  • Original Article |

    The regioselective halogen–magnesium exchange reaction of 4-(5″-hexylpyridine-2″-yl)-3-methoxy-2-(5′-bromothiophene-2′-yl)-5-bromothiophene (M3) with i-PrMgCl·LiCl, Kumada coupling polymerization using Ni(dppp)Cl2 at the refluxing temperature and optoelectronic characterization of regiocontrolled oligo(bithiophene) (P3′) were investigated. The ultraviolet–visible and cyclic voltammogram measurements indicated that P3′ has the more planar conformation, increased highest occupied molecular orbital energy level and narrower bandgap energy as compared with a polythiophene derivative without the methoxy group. The non-covalent S···O interaction was supposed to be a reason for the planar conformation, which was supported by the theoretical density functional theory calculation.

    • Koji Takagi
    • Ryo Kouchi
    • Junpei Kawai
  • Original Article |

    The grain size was evaluated by atomic force microscope observation for the thin film specimen of the polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-co-butylene)-block-polystyrene triblock copolymer in which the perpendicularly oriented polystyrene cylinders are existing, while that in the interior of the specimen was evaluated by the small-angle X-ray scattering measurements. Both results for the grain growth on the surface and in the interior of the sample exhibited power-law behavior with the same extent of the exponent (~0.45).

    • Shinichi Sakurai
    • Toshimasa Harada
    • Sono Sasaki
  • Original Article |

    Organic–inorganic hybrids containing [Ti4(μ3-O)(OiPr)5(μ-OiPr)3(O3PPh)3]·thf (TiOPPh) as element-blocks were prepared by hybridization with silicone polymers (poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), poly(methylsilsesquioxane) (PMS) or poly(ethoxysilsesquioxane) (PEOS)), the hydroxyl groups substituted organic polymers (poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), poly(4-vinylphenol), poly(styrene-co-allyl alcohol) or poly(bisphenol A-co-epichlorohydrin) (PBE)) or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The concentration of TiOPPh was increased to 40 wt% to form free-standing hybrid films with PDMS, PMS, PVA and PBE polymers. The tensile strengths and elongations of PMMA and PVA films were higher improved than only polymers because TiOPPh acted good crosslinkers.

    • Ryohei Hayami
    • Keisuke Wada
    • Takahiro Gunji
  • Original Article |

    Ionic liquid (IL)/sulfonated polyimide (SPI) composite membranes exhibit high carbon dioxide (CO2) permeability with good CO2/N2 selectivity. CO2 permeation coefficients (PCO2) are higher than 400 Barrer at 30 °C when the composite membranes include 75 wt% of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide. The IL/SPI composite membranes also exhibits excellent mechanical properties (Young’s modulus 10 MPa) and can be processed into thin and uniform membranes. These characteristics are preferable as CO2 separation membranes.

    • Akika Ito
    • Tomohiro Yasuda
    • Masayoshi Watanabe
  • Original Article |

    On the gelation of thermogelling polymer solutions, polymer chain transfer between the micelles and subsequent aggregation of the micelles are important steps. In this study, we investigated polymer chain transfer by the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) method to reveal its role in the sol-to-gel transition. We synthesized amphiphilic triblock copolymer attaching naphthalene or dansyl groups at termini, tri-PCG-nap and tri-PCG-dan. The FRET behavior of the mixture of tri-PCG-nap/tri-PCG micelles and tri-PCG-dan/tri-PCG micelles was investigated.

    • Kazuyuki Takata
    • Keisuke Kawahara
    • Yuichi Ohya
  • Original Article |

    An unidirectionally deformable material with reversibility was achieved. The method relies on crystal crosslinking of pillared-layer metal–organic framework (PLMOF), followed by exchange of the pillar ligand to monotopic ligand. The obtained crosslinked MOF crystal exhibited reversibly unidirectional compression and expansion upon cycles of drying and immersion in good solvents. The preservation of layer structure enabled to confirm the unidirectional deformation not only macroscopically but also microscopically. Our strategy will be a promising general method for construction of anisotropic deforming materials, which can be often seen in biological systems or mechanical devices.

    • Kenta Kokado
    • Takumi Ishiwata
    • Kazuki Sada

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