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  • The Earth’s climate is a complex system and palaeoclimate reconstructions can be used to test and expand on the knowledge gained from physical models during intervals of rapid climate fluctuations.

  • Evaporative loss of sulfur from molten planetesimals can explain the sub-chondritic sulfur isotope composition of the bulk silicate mantle, suggesting an important role for planetesimal evaporation in establishing Earth’s volatile budget.

    • Yuan Li
    News & Views
  • Much of the nutrient transport from the deep ocean into the ocean’s upper water column occurs through the Southern Ocean, with mixing and advection playing complementary roles, according to a box model analysis of the isotopic composition of ocean nitrate.

    • François Fripiat
    • Alfredo Martínez-García
    • Gerald H. Haug
    Article Open Access
  • Millennial-scale climate oscillations can arise from orbital forcing alone during relatively stable glacial climate states, according to an analysis of high- and low-latitude climate proxy records as well as climate modelling.

    • Xu Zhang
    • Stephen Barker
    • Fahu Chen
  • The fate of sedimentary carbon in rivers is determined by a combination of mineral protection and transit time. Along the fluvial journey from headwaters to sea, biogeochemical transformations control whether carbon is buried or returned to the atmosphere as CO2.

    • William Ford
    • James Fox
    News & Views
  • Marine microbes have shaped the climate throughout Earth’s history. Integration of microbial carbon cycling dynamics across a range of spatial scales will be critical for understanding the ocean’s impact in light of a changing climate.

  • Northern autumns and winters are getting warmer, and their weather is also getting blander. Observations and climate model simulations reveal that human activities have managed to make today’s weather measurably different than it was only a generation ago.

    • Dáithí A. Stone
    News & Views
  • We chat with Vincent Ialenti, a University of Southern California Berggruen Fellow, about thinking on geological timescales. Ialenti’s recent book, Deep Time Reckoning (MIT Press, 2020), chronicles his anthropological work on the institution responsible for the long-term safety of a Finnish nuclear waste repository.

    • James Super