Browse Articles

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Chowdhury et al. develop the Divider Assay, which is a simplified experimental procedure that allows Drosophila researchers to perform aggression analysis for a long period of time and in complete darkness. They find a peak in fighting during the middle of the day. This pipeline is expected to facilitate high-throughput screening for aggression.

    • Budhaditya Chowdhury
    • , Meng Wang
    • , Joshua P. Gnerer
    •  & Herman A. Dierick
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Van Lindt, Bratek-Skicki et al. show that at carefully selected pH values, proteins can be kept in solution and their LLPS can then be induced by a jump to native pH. This presents a generic method to study the full kinetic trajectory of LLPS under near native conditions that can be easily controlled, providing a platform for the characterization of physiologically relevant phase-separation behaviour of diverse proteins.

    • Joris Van Lindt
    • , Anna Bratek-Skicki
    • , Phuong N. Nguyen
    • , Donya Pakravan
    • , Luis F. Durán-Armenta
    • , Agnes Tantos
    • , Rita Pancsa
    • , Ludo Van Den Bosch
    • , Dominique Maes
    •  & Peter Tompa
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Raddatz, Lyko and colleagues use whole-genome bisulfite sequencing data to generate a methylation clock for chicken. This clock was able to detect age acceleration in broiler chickens under experimentally induced inflammation.

    • Günter Raddatz
    • , Ryan J. Arsenault
    • , Bridget Aylward
    • , Rose Whelan
    • , Florian Böhl
    •  & Frank Lyko
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Clare Gray et al. construct multilayer networks of weed seed regulation and pest gastropod predation by carabid beetles in 374 agricultural fields and show that these ecosystem services are mediated by trophic interaction frequencies. This study reveals that ecosystem services are governed by ecological plasticity in structurally complex, multi-layer trophic networks and these could assist in the assessment of the contribution of biodiversity to ecosystem services.

    • Clare Gray
    • , Athen Ma
    • , Orla McLaughlin
    • , Sandrine Petit
    • , Guy Woodward
    •  & David A. Bohan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Olena Maiakovska et al. provide whole-genome sequencing of the parthenogenetic and invasive marbled crayfish and develop a computational framework for data analysis of monoclonal genomes. These data and methodology allow the authors to demonstrate genetic separation between two populations and provide the first size estimate for a marbled crayfish colony, which they used to model population growth patterns.

    • Olena Maiakovska
    • , Ranja Andriantsoa
    • , Sina Tönges
    • , Carine Legrand
    • , Julian Gutekunst
    • , Katharina Hanna
    • , Lucian Pârvulescu
    • , Roman Novitsky
    • , András Weiperth
    • , Arnold Sciberras
    • , Alan Deidun
    • , Fabio Ercoli
    • , Antonin Kouba
    •  & Frank Lyko
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Lenk et al find that the preB cell receptor (preBCR) is associated with infiltration and relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the central nervous system (CNS). They also show that downregulation of preBCR component CD79a reduces the engraftment of leukemia cells in different murine xenograft models, particularly in the CNS.

    • Lennart Lenk
    • , Michela Carlet
    • , Fotini Vogiatzi
    • , Lea Spory
    • , Dorothee Winterberg
    • , Antony Cousins
    • , Michaela Vossen-Gajcy
    • , Olta Ibruli
    • , Christian Vokuhl
    • , Gunnar Cario
    • , Omar El Ayoubi
    • , Lisa Kramer
    • , Matthias Ritgen
    • , Monika Brüggemann
    • , Robert Häsler
    • , Martin Schrappe
    • , Stephan Fuhrmann
    • , Christina Halsey
    • , Irmela Jeremias
    • , Elias Hobeika
    • , Hassan Jumaa
    • , Ameera Alsadeq
    •  & Denis M. Schewe
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Martins et al. examine the effects of different routes of administration of oxytocin on functional connections in the brain of healthy males at rest. They observe local effects in key-hubs of brain’s oxytocin system (i.e. amygdala) as well as wider-spread effects. This demonstrates that oxytocin likely affects human behaviour by modulating multiple levels of brain processing across different systems.

    • Daniel Martins
    • , Ottavia Dipasquale
    •  & Yannis Paloyelis
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Santos et al. demonstrate that the Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) can accurately estimate the death time of trapped female Aedes aegypti and vector infection with Zika virus, Chikungunya virus, or Wolbachia in a 7-day trapping period. This study suggests that NIRS may provide an accurate and inexpensive tool that improves arbovirus surveillance systems.

    • Lilha M. B. Santos
    • , Mathijs Mutsaers
    • , Gabriela A. Garcia
    • , Mariana R. David
    • , Márcio G. Pavan
    • , Martha T. Petersen
    • , Jessica Corrêa-Antônio
    • , Dinair Couto-Lima
    • , Louis Maes
    • , Floyd Dowell
    • , Anton Lord
    • , Maggy Sikulu-Lord
    •  & Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas
  • Perspective
    | Open Access

    Mohan, Abdulhalim and Cvelbar investigated the capabilities of different plasmonic-based sensing techniques including the surface plasmon resonance (SPR), localised SPR, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) and surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRA) for the detection of viruses. The presented data will assist in the development of novel and versatile virus biosensors.

    • Anand M. Shrivastav
    • , Uroš Cvelbar
    •  & Ibrahim Abdulhalim
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Xiaoding Hu et al. find that expression of the proteoglycan decorin is decreased in patients with inflammatory breast cancer compared to normal breast tissue and some other types of breast cancer. They demonstrate that decorin acts as a tumor suppressor in cancer cells and human xenograft mouse models by destabilizing the E-cadherin-EGFR signaling axis, and their findings suggest potential therapeutic strategies for this aggressive breast cancer.

    • Xiaoding Hu
    • , Emilly S. Villodre
    • , Richard Larson
    • , Omar M. Rahal
    • , Xiaoping Wang
    • , Yun Gong
    • , Juhee Song
    • , Savitri Krishnamurthy
    • , Naoto T. Ueno
    • , Debu Tripathy
    • , Wendy A. Woodward
    •  & Bisrat G. Debeb
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Ayers et al. report rapid induction of apoptosis in the midgut of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes within 2 hours of infection by dengue and Zika viruses, and find that inhibiting apoptosis led to increased virus proliferation in the midgut. These results suggest rapid induction of apoptosis as an innate immune mechanism mediating midgut infection in this mosquito vector.

    • Jasmine B. Ayers
    • , Heather G. Coatsworth
    • , Seokyoung Kang
    • , Rhoel R. Dinglasan
    •  & Lei Zhou
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Jiahao Zhang, Kaixiong Ma, and Bo Li et al. identify a variant of the H9N2 avian influenza virus within the hemagglutinin cleavage site required for viral infection. They show that this variant leads to higher viral replication in cells and more virulent disease in both chickens and mice.

    • Jiahao Zhang
    • , Kaixiong Ma
    • , Bo Li
    • , Yiqun Chen
    • , Ziwen Qiu
    • , Jinchao Xing
    • , Jinyu Huang
    • , Chen Hu
    • , Yifan Huang
    • , Huanan Li
    • , Dingxiang Liu
    • , Ming Liao
    •  & Wenbao Qi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Naylet Centeno-González et al. report the discovery of the oldest legume fruit fossil at 73.5 million years old in the Olmos Formation of Mexico. This finding supports the hypothesis that Mexico is the center of radiation for Fabaceae.

    • Naylet K. Centeno-González
    • , Hugo I. Martínez-Cabrera
    • , Héctor Porras-Múzquiz
    •  & Emilio Estrada-Ruiz
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Kiesow et al. use deep learning to identify partially overlapping subnetworks in the human social brain at the population level. They also demonstrate that the learned subnetwork representations can be used to predict social traits.

    • Hannah Kiesow
    • , R. Nathan Spreng
    • , Avram J. Holmes
    • , M. Mallar Chakravarty
    • , Andre F. Marquand
    • , B. T. Thomas Yeo
    •  & Danilo Bzdok
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Li et al. use experimental observations of red-nose tetrafish and mathematical simulations to model the burst-and-coast swimming regime. This study shows that in order to sustain the necessary speed, fish adopt a unique intrinsic cycle by modifying the burst to coast ratio and can implement this pattern at a range of swimming speeds.

    • Gen Li
    • , Intesaaf Ashraf
    • , Bill François
    • , Dmitry Kolomenskiy
    • , Frédéric Lechenault
    • , Ramiro Godoy-Diana
    •  & Benjamin Thiria
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Laura Jones et al. compare honey samples across the UK from 2017 to a nationwide survey of honey samples from 1952 in order to determine how nectar and pollen sources have changed over time. They find that shifts in major plants foraged by honeybees are driven by changes in the availability of these plants within the landscape, and focus on improved grasslands as the most widespread habitat type and a potential target for management efforts to increase floral resource availability.

    • Laura Jones
    • , Georgina L. Brennan
    • , Abigail Lowe
    • , Simon Creer
    • , Col R. Ford
    •  & Natasha de Vere
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Cover et al. develop a method that permits functional MRI of brain dynamics while mice are cued to perform an operant task: licking a spout to receive optogenetic stimulation to the medial prefrontal cortex. This method presents noninvasive whole brain readout for adaptive behavior of mice in response to circuit-specific neuromodulation.

    • Christopher G. Cover
    • , Andrew J. Kesner
    • , Shehzad Ukani
    • , Elliot A. Stein
    • , Satoshi Ikemoto
    • , Yihong Yang
    •  & Hanbing Lu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Guillaume Peterson St-Laurent et al. introduce the R–R-T (Resistance-Resilience-Transformation) conservation typology that enables the empirical assessment of whether and to what extent a management shift toward transformative action is occurring. They apply the R–R-T scale to 104 adaptation projects and find a shift towards transformation over time and differential responses across ecosystems, with more transformative actions applied in forested ecosystems.

    • Guillaume Peterson St-Laurent
    • , Lauren E. Oakes
    • , Molly Cross
    •  & Shannon Hagerman
  • Article
    | Open Access

    With fluorescence based-TIRF microspectroscopy, Ušaj et al. unveil mechanistic details about the ATP turnover rates by myosin and actomyosin with enzymatic reaction pathways that were not possible to obtain from ensemble studies. This study could be important to the field of molecular motors.

    • Marko Ušaj
    • , Luisa Moretto
    • , Venukumar Vemula
    • , Aseem Salhotra
    •  & Alf Månsson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Spagnolli, Massignan, Astolfi et al. design a new drug discovery approach, termed Pharmacological Protein Inactivation by Folding Intermediate Targeting, in which folding intermediates of disease-causing proteins are targeted. They test it on the cellular prion protein, identifying ligands stabilizing a folding intermediate and consequently promoting its degradation by the cellular quality control machinery.

    • Giovanni Spagnolli
    • , Tania Massignan
    • , Andrea Astolfi
    • , Silvia Biggi
    • , Marta Rigoli
    • , Paolo Brunelli
    • , Michela Libergoli
    • , Alan Ianeselli
    • , Simone Orioli
    • , Alberto Boldrini
    • , Luca Terruzzi
    • , Valerio Bonaldo
    • , Giulia Maietta
    • , Nuria L. Lorenzo
    • , Leticia C. Fernandez
    • , Yaiza B. Codeseira
    • , Laura Tosatto
    • , Luise Linsenmeier
    • , Beatrice Vignoli
    • , Gianluca Petris
    • , Dino Gasparotto
    • , Maria Pennuto
    • , Graziano Guella
    • , Marco Canossa
    • , Hermann C. Altmeppen
    • , Graziano Lolli
    • , Stefano Biressi
    • , Manuel M. Pastor
    • , Jesús R. Requena
    • , Ines Mancini
    • , Maria L. Barreca
    • , Pietro Faccioli
    •  & Emiliano Biasini
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors introduce a metabolome-wide association study that combines a genome-wide association study of cerebrospinal fluid metabolites with publicly available genome-wide association study summary statistics of neurological and psychiatric conditions to identify 19 significant CSF metabolite-phenotype associations.

    • Daniel J. Panyard
    • , Kyeong Mo Kim
    • , Burcu F. Darst
    • , Yuetiva K. Deming
    • , Xiaoyuan Zhong
    • , Yuchang Wu
    • , Hyunseung Kang
    • , Cynthia M. Carlsson
    • , Sterling C. Johnson
    • , Sanjay Asthana
    • , Corinne D. Engelman
    •  & Qiongshi Lu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Geis et al. investigate the potential application of hemibodies, a pair of complementary antibody fragments that redirect T cells against cancer-defining antigen combinations, such as CD38 and SLAMF7, to target multiple myeloma. Their study provides evidence that hemibodies can be developed for effective immunotherapy against multiple myeloma.

    • Maria Geis
    • , Boris Nowotny
    • , Marc-Dominic Bohn
    • , Dina Kouhestani
    • , Hermann Einsele
    • , Thomas Bumm
    •  & Gernot Stuhler
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mukherjee, Nandekar and Wade investigate the structural arrangement of the complex between membrane-bound cytochrome P450 1A1 and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. They find that upon binding to the reductase, the catalytic domain of cytochrome P450 1A1 reorients subject to the constraints of membrane binding, potentially explaining why the electron transfer rates between the proteins are low when compared to those of soluble bacterial cytochrome P450s.

    • Goutam Mukherjee
    • , Prajwal P. Nandekar
    •  & Rebecca C. Wade
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Moaddab et al. monitored single-unit firing of ventral pallidum (VP) neurons alongside behavior in rats when presented with auditory cues of various threat levels. They show that the VP is comprised of functional neuronal populations that dynamically respond to threat and thus constitute a neural basis for threat behaviors.

    • Mahsa Moaddab
    • , Madelyn H. Ray
    •  & Michael A. McDannald
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Kvastad et al. develop the spatial RNA Integrity Number (sRIN) assay that evaluates the RNA integrity at cellular resolution. This method improves the resolution of a similar method called the RNA Integrity Number (RIN), demonstrating spatial variation in the quality of RNA samples.

    • Linda Kvastad
    • , Konstantin Carlberg
    • , Ludvig Larsson
    • , Eva Gracia Villacampa
    • , Alexander Stuckey
    • , Linnea Stenbeck
    • , Annelie Mollbrink
    • , Margherita Zamboni
    • , Jens Peter Magnusson
    • , Elisa Basmaci
    • , Alia Shamikh
    • , Gabriela Prochazka
    • , Anna-Lena Schaupp
    • , Åke Borg
    • , Lars Fugger
    • , Monica Nistér
    •  & Joakim Lundeberg
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Takehiro Kazama et al. develop a framework based on Lotka–Volterra models to identify the relative influences of production rate, defense traits, nutrient contents of producers, and predation, in affecting the biomass ratio of herbivores to primary producers in a community. They apply this framework to freshwater plankton systems and find that while all factors affect the biomass ratio, carnivore abundance has the greatest relative influence.

    • Takehiro Kazama
    • , Jotaro Urabe
    • , Masato Yamamichi
    • , Kotaro Tokita
    • , Xuwang Yin
    • , Izumi Katano
    • , Hideyuki Doi
    • , Takehito Yoshida
    •  & Nelson G. Hairston Jr
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Alex Rivera-Millot et al. investigate copper homeostasis in the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis, which has a single copper defense mechanism via a metallochaperone diverted for copper passivation and two peroxide detoxification enzymes. This study demonstrates that copper up-regulates the copZ-prxgrx-gorB operon in macrophages, and this system appears to contribute to persistent infection in the nasal cavity of B. pertussis-infected mice. This study brings insight into strategies aimed to optimize survival of a host-restricted pathogen.

    • Alex Rivera-Millot
    • , Stéphanie Slupek
    • , Jonathan Chatagnon
    • , Gauthier Roy
    • , Jean-Michel Saliou
    • , Gabriel Billon
    • , Véronique Alaimo
    • , David Hot
    • , Sophie Salomé-Desnoulez
    • , Camille Locht
    • , Rudy Antoine
    •  & Françoise Jacob-Dubuisson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Ilaria Bertocchi et al. use a mouse model of Grin2a dysfunction to show that activity-independent NMDA receptors are involved in audiogenic seizure generation. Their results suggest a role for NMDA receptors in maintaining an appropriate response to sensory stimuli and a potential mechanism for disease phenotypes in epilepsy patients with GRIN2A mutations.

    • Ilaria Bertocchi
    • , Ahmed Eltokhi
    • , Andrey Rozov
    • , Vivan Nguyễn Chi
    • , Vidar Jensen
    • , Thorsten Bus
    • , Verena Pawlak
    • , Marta Serafino
    • , Hannah Sonntag
    • , Boyi Yang
    • , Nail Burnashev
    • , Shi-Bin Li
    • , Horst A. Obenhaus
    • , Martin Both
    • , Burkhard Niewoehner
    • , Frank N. Single
    • , Michael Briese
    • , Thomas Boerner
    • , Peter Gass
    • , John Nick P. Rawlins
    • , Georg Köhr
    • , David M. Bannerman
    •  & Rolf Sprengel
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Chen et al. show that hippuric acid (HA), which is a diet-derived phenolic acid, inhibits bone resorption and increases bone mass in wild type mice, but not in G-protein coupled receptor (GPR109A) knockout mice. This study suggests that GPR109A mediates the effects of HA on inhibiting bone resorption during skeletal development.

    • Jin-Ran Chen
    • , Haijun Zhao
    • , Umesh D. Wankhade
    • , Sree V. Chintapalli
    • , Can Li
    • , Dongzheng Gai
    • , Kartik Shankar
    • , Fenghuang Zhan
    •  & Oxana P. Lazarenko
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Newton et al. use microCT data and geometric morphometric analyses to explore the processes underlying the convergently evolved skulls of thylacine and gray wolf. Similarities in growth trajectory are contrasted by differential developmental event timing, with origins of morphometric similarity constrained by developmental modules and embryonic tissue origins.

    • Axel H. Newton
    • , Vera Weisbecker
    • , Andrew J. Pask
    •  & Christy A. Hipsley
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The paracingulate sulcus (PCGS) is a brain structure long thought to be specific to humans, and variation in this structure has been linked to personality traits and cognitive abilities. In this study, Céline Amiez and Jérôme Sallet et al. analyze brain imaging data from humans and chimpanzees to demonstrate that the PCGS is in fact present in our closest relative and its functional connectivity in chimpanzees is comparable to that in humans.

    • Céline Amiez
    • , Jérôme Sallet
    • , Jennifer Novek
    • , Fadila Hadj-Bouziane
    • , Camille Giacometti
    • , Jesper Andersson
    • , William D. Hopkins
    •  & Michael Petrides
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Honey bee queens store and use sperm for years after mating, but doing so may require a dampened immune response to keep the sperm viable. Alison McAfee et al. tested this hypothesis using mass spectrometry-based proteomics in queens with high and low sperm quantity and quality and found that lower measures of fertility correlated with high levels of the immune effector lysozyme, consistent with a trade-off between immunity and fertility.

    • Alison McAfee
    • , Abigail Chapman
    • , Jeffery S. Pettis
    • , Leonard J. Foster
    •  & David R. Tarpy
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Jeremy To et al. develop an ultra-high-content assay platform used to interrogate T-cell-mediated killing of 3D multicellular tumor spheroids. They screen 1,800 annotated compounds to identify small molecules that enhance cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell activity in an antigen-dependent manner, demonstrating the utility of this assay platform.

    • Jeremy To
    • , Doug Quackenbush
    • , Emily Rowell
    • , Lilin Li
    • , Connor Reed
    • , Frederick Lo
    •  & Shane R. Horman
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Masato Iwabu and Miki Okada-Iwabu et al. investigate whether diabetic phenotypes associated with disruption of the adiponectin receptor (AdipoR1) can be reversed in diabetic mice by upregulation of the receptor. They show that overexpressing human AdipoR1 in the muscles of diabetic mice increased insulin sensitivity and exercise endurance, suggesting a possible route for future clinical therapies.

    • Masato Iwabu
    • , Miki Okada-Iwabu
    • , Hiroaki Tanabe
    • , Nozomi Ohuchi
    • , Keiko Miyata
    • , Toshiko Kobori
    • , Sara Odawara
    • , Yuri Kadowaki
    • , Shigeyuki Yokoyama
    • , Toshimasa Yamauchi
    •  & Takashi Kadowaki
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Iztok Dogsa et al. use mathematical modeling and experimental approaches to investigate how the ComQXPA communication system in Bacillus subtilis initiate a quorum-sensing response without the positive feedback loop dependent on signal molecules seen in many systems. They find that the peptide ComX encodes information about cell density, specific cell growth rate and oxygen concentration, which ensure power-law increase in signal molecule production and enables a sharp transition in gene expression level without the typical feedback loop.

    • Iztok Dogsa
    • , Mihael Spacapan
    • , Anna Dragoš
    • , Tjaša Danevčič
    • , Žiga Pandur
    •  & Ines Mandic-Mulec
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sidney R. Lehky et al. examined neurophysiological data from a wide variety of macaque cortices and find highly correlated population responses to both synthetic and natural stimuli. This high correlation, termed the pseudosparseness index, mimics statistical properties of sparseness without being authentically sparse, highlighting need for more in-depth assessment of the cortical sparse coding literature.

    • Sidney R. Lehky
    • , Keiji Tanaka
    •  & Anne B. Sereno
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Andrea Stojakovic et al. demonstrate that partial pharmacological inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I (CP2) can reduce neurodegeneration and improve key disease phenotypes in a symptomatic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease.

    • Andrea Stojakovic
    • , Sergey Trushin
    • , Anthony Sheu
    • , Layla Khalili
    • , Su-Youne Chang
    • , Xing Li
    • , Trace Christensen
    • , Jeffrey L. Salisbury
    • , Rachel E. Geroux
    • , Benjamin Gateno
    • , Padraig J. Flannery
    • , Mrunal Dehankar
    • , Cory C. Funk
    • , Jordan Wilkins
    • , Anna Stepanova
    • , Tara O’Hagan
    • , Alexander Galkin
    • , Jarred Nesbitt
    • , Xiujuan Zhu
    • , Utkarsh Tripathi
    • , Slobodan Macura
    • , Tamar Tchkonia
    • , Tamar Pirtskhalava
    • , James L. Kirkland
    • , Rachel A. Kudgus
    • , Renee A. Schoon
    • , Joel M. Reid
    • , Yu Yamazaki
    • , Takahisa Kanekiyo
    • , Song Zhang
    • , Emirhan Nemutlu
    • , Petras Dzeja
    • , Adam Jaspersen
    • , Ye In Christopher Kwon
    • , Michael K. Lee
    •  & Eugenia Trushina
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Tang et al. show that microRNAs derived from an endoparasitic wasp Snellenius manilae bracovirus (SmBV), SmBV-miR-199b-5p and SmBV-miR-2989, target domeless and toll-7 in its host Spodoptera litura, suppressing the innate immune responses of parasitized hosts. This study provides insights into how parasites maximize their fitness by regulating host immunity.

    • Cheng-Kang Tang
    • , Chih-Hsuan Tsai
    • , Carol-P. Wu
    • , Yu-Hsien Lin
    • , Sung-Chan Wei
    • , Yun-Heng Lu
    • , Cheng-Hsun Li
    •  & Yueh-Lung Wu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors designed a lipopeptide, Pam-3, based on an eight-amino acid carboxyl-terminal fragment of human β-defensin 1 with prominent antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant ESKAPE pathogens and antibiofilm properties. They show in mouse models, that Pam-3 selectively reduced acute intestinal Salmonella and established Citrobacter infections, without compromising the core microbiota.

    • Louis Koeninger
    • , Lisa Osbelt
    • , Anne Berscheid
    • , Judith Wendler
    • , Jürgen Berger
    • , Katharina Hipp
    • , Till R. Lesker
    • , Marina C. Pils
    • , Nisar P. Malek
    • , Benjamin A. H. Jensen
    • , Heike Brötz-Oesterhelt
    • , Till Strowig
    •  & Jan Wehkamp
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Stockdale and Benton use a new phylogeny of living and extinct crocodilians and their closest relatives to model evolutionary rates and identify the relative influences of extrinsic and intrinsic drivers of evolution in this order. Their results show that environmental factors played a significant role in the evolution of crocodiles.

    • Maximilian T. Stockdale
    •  & Michael J. Benton
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Ives and Bozzuto estimate the spread rate of COVID-19 in the USA at the start of the epidemic, extrapolating values of R0 for 3109 counties during the period before measures were taken to reduce the spread. Most of predictive variation in county-level values of R0 is explained by population density and spatial location, with differences among locations associated with differences among strains of SARS-CoV-2.

    • Anthony R. Ives
    •  & Claudio Bozzuto
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Limbachia et al conduct a fMRI study in which participants are shown stressful stimuli that is either controllable or not. They show that the ability to control a stressor results in reduced activity in key areas of the brain that coordinate responses to a perceived threat.

    • Chirag Limbachia
    • , Kelly Morrow
    • , Anastasiia Khibovska
    • , Christian Meyer
    • , Srikanth Padmala
    •  & Luiz Pessoa
  • Research Highlight
    | Open Access

    A huge amount of intrigue surrounds the aging process. Senescence—the decreased likelihood of reproduction and the increased chance of mortality—is a hallmark of aging. The reduced ability of senescent cells to maintain protein homeostasis (proteostasis) has been well-established in nematodes but this phenomenon had yet to be directly demonstrated in human cells. Sabath et al. recently provided compelling evidence that proteostasis collapse is indeed intrinsic to human cell senescence, which may have broad implications in the underlying processes of human aging.

    • Karli Montague-Cardoso
  • Q&A
    | Open Access

    Lorin Crawford began his independent career at Brown University School of Public Health with his own lab in the summer of 2017. He is currently a Senior Researcher at Microsoft Research, New England while also keeping his faculty position at Brown University. In this short Q&A he tells us about his research and the effect the pandemic has had on his lab and science. Dr. Crawford also shares some great tips on academic careers and making biostatistics approachable to wider audience and his views on the most exciting application of machine learning.

  • Research Highlight
    | Open Access

    Protein aggregation and phase separation appear to play important roles in diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD), but the interplay between different participating molecular events-which may facilitate or inhibit one another-can be difficult to study by conventional ensemble methods. In a recent study, Kevin Rhine and co-workers make use of point mutations to demonstrate the contrasting behaviour of condensates arising from Glycine and Arginine FUS mutants using single molecules fluorescence measurements.

    • Krishnananda Chattopadhyay
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Koguchi-Yoshioka et al. demonstrate that functional activities and diversity of T cells are highly maintained in the skin of elderly people when compared with those in the blood regardless of the ethnicity of the participants or the experimental procedures. They also find the accumulation of epidermal T cells with maintained cytokine production in the elderly participants.

    • Hanako Koguchi-Yoshioka
    • , Elena Hoffer
    • , Stanley Cheuk
    • , Yutaka Matsumura
    • , Sa Vo
    • , Petra Kjellman
    • , Lucian Grema
    • , Yosuke Ishitsuka
    • , Yoshiyuki Nakamura
    • , Naoko Okiyama
    • , Yasuhiro Fujisawa
    • , Manabu Fujimoto
    • , Liv Eidsmo
    • , Rachael A. Clark
    •  & Rei Watanabe
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Valente et al. compared two different strains of mouse that differ in sexual performance. They found that prolactin is released during sexual behaviour—however pharmacological manipulation of prolactin demonstrated that it is not a determinant of sexual activity or refractory period.

    • Susana Valente
    • , Tiago Marques
    •  & Susana Q. Lima
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Cataldi et al. investigates the impact of the dopamine derivative DOPAL on the Aβ peptide oligomer formation. They report that DOPAL promotes the formation of stable Aβ oligomers that exert toxicity on neuroblastoma cells by increasing cytosolic calcium levels and generating reactive oxygen species. This study connects Aβ aggregation with processes regulating cellular homeostasis in the brain.

    • Rodrigo Cataldi
    • , Sean Chia
    • , Katarina Pisani
    • , Francesco S. Ruggeri
    • , Catherine K. Xu
    • , Tomas Šneideris
    • , Michele Perni
    • , Sunehera Sarwat
    • , Priyanka Joshi
    • , Janet R. Kumita
    • , Sara Linse
    • , Johnny Habchi
    • , Tuomas P. J. Knowles
    • , Benedetta Mannini
    • , Christopher M. Dobson
    •  & Michele Vendruscolo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Through a chemical genetics screen and phospho-proteomics, Ledet and Ruff et al identify substrates of the oncogenic kinase PIM1 in prostate cancer cells. They find that NDRG1 protein is destabilized by PIM1-mediated phosphorylation to reduce its metastasis suppressor function. These findings shed light on the role of PIM1 in prostate cancer.

    • Russell J. Ledet
    • , Sophie E. Ruff
    • , Yu Wang
    • , Shruti Nayak
    • , Jeffrey A. Schneider
    • , Beatrix Ueberheide
    • , Susan K. Logan
    •  & Michael J. Garabedian
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Kim, Hwang et al. use in vitro and in vivo models of autophagy disorder/metabolic dysfunction to show that in this context, the natural compound kaempferide is an autophagy enhancer and reveal that one of the underlying mechanisms governing this is mediated by the mitochondrial elongation factor TUFM. This insight may have therapeutic value in the treatment of metabolic disorders.

    • Dasol Kim
    • , Hui-Yun Hwang
    • , Eun Sun Ji
    • , Jin Young Kim
    • , Jong Shin Yoo
    •  & Ho Jeong Kwon