Here, the authors characterize replication of SARS-CoV-2 in human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures and show that it can infect ciliated and secretory cells, affects transepithelial electrical resistance and causes plaque-like cytopathic effects associated with apoptosis.
To support urgent research to combat the ongoing outbreak of COVID-19, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the editorial teams at Nature Research have curated a collection of relevant articles. Our collection includes research into the basic biology of coronavirus infection, its detection, treatment and evolution, research into the epidemiology of emerging viral diseases, and our coverage of current events. The articles will remain free to access for as long as the outbreak remains a public health emergency of international concern.
Latest SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 research
Rugge and colleagues report that patients with cancer, particularly those who are older and male, face a significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Brazil has one of the fastest-growing COVID-19 epidemics in the world. De Souza et al. report epidemiological, demographic and clinical findings for COVID-19 cases in the country during the first 3 months of the epidemic.
EY6A, a neutralizing antibody isolated from a patient convalescing from COVID-19, binds the receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein with high affinity, at a location away from the binding site for the ACE2 receptor, similar to the one recognized by CR3022.
SARS-CoV-2 is reliably detected in nasal swab samples using mass spectrometry and machine learning analysis.
A longitudinal analysis of immune responses in patients with moderate or severe COVID-19 identifies a maladapted immune response profile linked to severe disease.
Structural analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 methyltransferase complex involved in RNA cap creation bound to sinefungin
SARS-CoV-2 expresses a 2′-O RNA methyltransferase (MTase) that is involved in the viral RNA cap formation and therefore a target for antiviral therapy. Here the authors provide the structure of nsp10-nsp16 with the panMTase inhibitor sinefungin and report that the development of MTase inhibitor therapies that target multiple coronoaviruses is feasible.
Specific non-structural proteins (nsp) of SARS coronaviruses are involved in methylation of virally encoded mRNAs to mimic cellular mRNAs for protection against host innate immune restriction. Here, the authors present a high resolution structure of SARS-CoV-2 nsp16/nsp10 ternary complex in the presence of cognate RNA substrate analogue and methyl donor, S-adenosyl methionine, revealing unique ligand-binding sites that may represent alternative targets for antiviral development.
Patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases receiving cytokine inhibitors have low prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion
Cytokine storm seems to be a common feature of severe COVID-19 pathology. Here, the authors show a reduced rate of SARS-CoV2 positivity in a large population of patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases if they are already being treated with cytokine or JAK inhibitors, indicating these treatments are safe to continue and are possibly protective against COVID19.
A SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralization test based on antibody-mediated blockage of ACE2–spike protein–protein interaction
A blocking assay based on the recombinant receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor provides an alternative to conventional antibody neutralization assays requiring live virus.
A diverse collection of potent neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein have been isolated from five patients with severe COVID-19 and high serum neutralization titres.
The COVID 19 pandemic and consequent lockdown has had a substantial impact on mobility and therefore fuel demand and it is not clear when demand will recover. Ou et al. use a machine learning model that integrates health recovery scenarios to project the near-term future of gasoline demand.
The spike (S) protein of coronaviruses is responsible for receptor recognition and the fusion between the viral membrane and the of cell host membrane. Here the authors report a cryo-EM structure of SARS-CoV post-fusion S2 trimer, providing insights into the fusion mechanism that could be useful for therapeutic development against coronaviruses.
Analysis of the full-spectrum transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in Wuhan reveals that multipronged non-pharmaceutical interventions were effective in controlling the outbreak, and highlights that covert infections may pose risks of resurgence when reopening without intervention measures.
The sudden deterioration of patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) into critical illness is of major concern and early assessment would be vital. Here, the authors show that a deep learning-based survival model can predict the risk of COVID-19 patients developing critical illness based on clinical characteristics at admission.
SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells were found in individuals who had recovered from SARS or COVID-19 and in unexposed donors, although with different patterns of immunoreactivity.
An analysis identifies human monoclonal antibodies that potently neutralize wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and protect animals from disease, including two that synergize in a cocktail, suggesting that these could be candidates for use as therapeutic agents for the treatment of COVID-19 in humans.
The authors propose a nomenclature of SARS-CoV-2 lineages to assist research on epidemiology and decision-making during the COVID-19 pandemic. This nomenclature is based on the SARS-CoV-2 phylogeny and designed to provide a real-time bird’s-eye view of the diversity of the hundreds of thousands of genome sequences collected worldwide. The authors develop a set of rules to produce a hierarchical four-level nomenclature of labels that is flexible and dynamic.
The DNA modification N6-methyladenine regulates gene expression during mouse trophoblast development by depositing at the boundaries of active chromatin and preventing its spread by antagonizing the chromatin organizer SATB1.
RNA polymerase II has an unexpected function in the nucleolus, helping to drive the expression of ribosomal RNA and to protect nucleolar structure through a mechanism involving triplex R-loop structures.
Information developed to understand the molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection for predicting drug repurposing candidates is time-consuming to integrate and explore. Here, the authors develop an interactive online platform for virus-host interactome exploration and drug (target) identification.
Currently very little is known about how our immune system responds to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here the authors generate a SARS-CoV-2 proteome microarray for profiling of IgG and IgM responses to COVID-19 in patients and find significant responses to ORF9b and NSP5, as well as the S1 and N proteins.
Two nanobodies that bind SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD are shown to block interaction with receptor ACE2 and thus neutralize the virus, and have an additive effect with antibody CR3022.
The antibody-dependent enhancement of disease is reviewed, with an emphasis on implications for the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
News and Comment
Nano-formulating dexamethasone, and administering it via intravenous injection or inhalation, may help to improve anti-COVID-19 treatment efficacy by targeting the potent corticosteroid drug to hyper-activated immune cells, by potentiating its anti-oedema activity and by exploiting its anti-fibrotic effects.
Nanotechnology-based antimicrobial and antiviral formulations can prevent SARS-CoV-2 viral dissemination, and highly sensitive biosensors and detection platforms may contribute to the detection and diagnosis of COVID-19.
Brazil has been severely affected by the novel coronavirus. At a time when the country needs to concentrate on controlling and fighting the virus, President Bolsonaro has minimized the importance of the pandemic and focused on political battles.
COVID-19 has not affected all scientists equally. A survey of principal investigators indicates that female scientists, those in the ‘bench sciences’ and, especially, scientists with young children experienced a substantial decline in time devoted to research. This could have important short- and longer-term effects on their careers, which institution leaders and funders need to address carefully.
The effect of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on liver transplantation programmes and recipients is still not completely understood but overall involves the risk of donor-derived transmission, the reliability of diagnostic tests, health-care resource utilization and the effect of immunosuppression. This Comment reviews the effect of COVID-19 on liver transplantation and summarizes recommendations for donor and recipient management.
On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization declared SARS-CoV-2 and its associated disease, COVID-19, a global pandemic. Across the world, governments took action to slow the spread and hospitals rushed to accommodate an influx of patients with this highly infectious and lethal disease. The urology departments in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, and Herlev and Gentofte, Copenhagen, Denmark — which are linked by the pre-existing CopMich Collaborative — had to respond with massive changes to the organization, staffing and workload of their teams. In this Viewpoint, authors from different urological subspecialties and at different career stages reflect on their experiences during the pandemic. Although their countries’ responses to the COVID-19 pandemic differed radically, the similarities between the responses in Copenhagen and Michigan demonstrate the universal characteristics of medicine and the value of teamwork, flexibility and collaboration.
In this Comment, Heidi Larson discusses the COVID-19 ‘infodemic’ and suggests the ways in which scientists can help to mitigate the spread of misinformation.
Reviews and Perspectives
A subset of patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) develop a thrombotic disorder that resembles a virally induced, complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy. Here, the authors present the theory and evidence for this disease model and discuss important considerations for treatment.
In Africa, COVID-19 has created a perfect storm of reduced funding, restrictions on the operations of conservation agencies, and elevated human threats to nature. This Perspective discusses solutions to move beyond this immediate crisis.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused substantial global impact. This Perspective provides insight into the environmental effects of the pandemic, documenting how it offers an opportunity to better understand the Earth System.
The presence of cardiovascular comorbidities is linked with worse outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and COVID-19 can induce cardiovascular damage. In this Review, Wu and colleagues summarize the latest mechanistic and clinical studies that contribute to our current understanding of COVID-19-related cardiovascular disease.
This Review highlights current approaches to COVID-19 vaccine development, highlighting the role of nanotechnology, manufacturing and distribution.
In this Review, the authors synthesize recommendations on the management of neuroimmunological disease in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. They consider these recommendations alongside the first available data from patients, and provide an overview of management approaches in the COVID-19 era.
Thirty-two experts propose ten considerations for managing the de-escalation of COVID-19 containment measures while still maintaining public adherence to social and physical distancing.
This Perspective article explores similarities in the inflammatory processes underlying coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and rheumatoid arthritis, including the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the potential of anti-cytokine therapies to treat COVID-19, as well as the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on rheumatology.
Why are males more susceptible to severe COVID-19 than females? In this Perspective, Sabra Klein and colleagues consider the sex differences in the immune system that may contribute to this sex bias.
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in changes to the management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, including major disruptions to endoscopy. This Perspective provides a guide and recommendations for inflammatory bowel disease endoscopy during a global health emergency based on expert experience in Italy and France.