Twenty years after the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery of conducting polymers, we reflect on the open research questions and the status of commercial development of these materials.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000 was awarded to Shirakawa, MacDiarmid and Heeger for the discovery of conducting polymers. In this Focus, we look at the progress made since then in the synthesis of polymeric conductors and semiconductors, in the fundamental understanding of their properties and in their use in devices and commercialization. We also collect some of the most recent research results published in our pages.
News and Comments
Shirakawa, MacDiarmid and Heeger received the 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery of conducting polymers. Here we summarize the impact of (semi)conducting polymers on fundamental research, synthetic accessibility at scale, industrial applicability and the future.
Organic neuromorphic devices are now able to take direct input from cellular neurotransmitter release.
A cell culture interfacing an organic neuromorphic device in a microfluidic system reversibly modifies the device synaptic weight through chemical reactions mediated by the release of dopamine, a neurotransmitter used in biological synapses.
From the archive
From optoelectronic to biomedical and energy storage applications, the interest in organic mixed ionic–electronic conductors is expanding. This Review describes current understanding of the processes occurring in these materials and their structure–property relations.
Organic semiconductors are making their way into applications ranging from display technology to flexible electronics and biomedical applications. This Review discusses current understanding of charge carrier transport in these materials and strategies to improve their performance.
An n-type semiconducting polymer is used to realize an organic electrochemical transistor working as a glucose sensor and an all-polymer enzymatic biofuel cell able to power the sensor itself.
Photocatalysts formed from a single organic semiconductor can suffer from inefficient charge generation leading to low photocatalytic activities. Incorporating a heterojunction between a donor polymer and non-fullerene acceptor in organic nanoparticles leads to enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution.
Enhancement-mode ion-based transistor as a comprehensive interface and real-time processing unit for in vivo electrophysiology
Internal ion-gated organic electrochemical transistors operating in enhancement mode are shown to record electrophysiological signals in vivo, with a speed and sensitivity that enable the detection of action potentials from individual neurons.
Doping through spontaneous electron transfer between donor and acceptor polymers is obtained by selecting organic semiconductors with suitable electron affinity and ionization energy, achieving high conductivity in blends and bilayer configuration.
A high-speed, high-gain enhancement-mode ion-gated transistor shows promise for low-power chronically implanted bioelectronic systems.
Two initially neutral conjugated semiconducting polymers are found to transfer electrons when put in contact in the solid state, leading to mutual electrical doping.