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The frequency and severity of wildfires is on the rise due to human activity and the effects of climate change, which includes drought and heat waves. Locally, wildfires cause huge economic and ecological damage, while resultant aerosols and carbon emissions affect human health, wildlife, and climate, on a much wider scale. This collection reviews recent research on the drivers of wildfires, their impact on ecology and health, and the monitoring and forecasting of their occurrence and distribution.