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In the 21st century, the rapidly changing global landscape have accelerated the emergence and spread of novel viral pathogens. Emerging zoonotic viral diseases pose a constant threat, and the appearance of a new virus or reemergence of a previously identified virus with diversified properties is cause for global concern. The current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and other viral disease outbreaks, such as those of tick-borne SFTS and human infections with avian influenza viruses, serve as a constant reminder of how vulnerable humans are to emerging viral pathogens. The threat to public health posed by the emergence of novel fatal viral diseases has driven concentrated efforts to understand viral molecular and cellular biology. However, despite the attempts to elucidate the complexities of these emerging viruses, scant new information regarding the ever-changing threats posed by these viruses exists. This special issue provides a comprehensive review of emerging viral diseases. This information is an invaluable resource for those seeking to understand the mechanisms underlying host-virus interactions, which is necessary for controlling emerging fatal viral diseases, and provides insights into potential future pandemics.