Genome editing is a valuable technique for gene function analysis and crop improvement. Over the past two years, the CRISPR-Cas9 system has emerged as a powerful tool for precisely targeted gene editing. In this study, we predicted 11 U6 genes in soybean (Glycine max L.). We then constructed two vectors (pCas9-GmU6-sgRNA and pCas9-AtU6-sgRNA) using the soybean U6-10 and Arabidopsis U6-26 promoters, respectively, to produce synthetic guide RNAs (sgRNAs) for targeted gene mutagenesis. Three genes, Glyma06g14180, Glyma08g02290 and Glyma12g37050, were selected as targets. Mutations of these three genes were detected in soybean protoplasts. The vectors were then transformed into soybean hairy roots by Agrobacterium rhizogenes infection, resulting in efficient target gene editing. Mutation efficiencies ranged from 3.2–9.7% using the pCas9-AtU6-sgRNA vector and 14.7–20.2% with the pCas9-GmU6-sgRNA vector. Biallelic mutations in Glyma06g14180 and Glyma08g02290 were detected in transgenic hairy roots. Off-target activities associated with Glyma06g14180 and Glyma12g37050 were also detected. Off-target activity would improve mutation efficiency for the construction of a saturated gene mutation library in soybean. Targeted mutagenesis using the CRISPR-Cas9 system should advance soybean functional genomic research, especially that of genes involved in the roots and nodules.
Genome editing is an important tool for gene function analysis, gene therapy and crop improvement. In recent years, three genome editing techniques have been developed that rely on zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system1. All three methods induce double-stranded breaks (DSBs) in the target genome DNA, which are subsequently repaired through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR)2. ZFNs and TALENs target the genome through protein-DNA interactions, whereas genomic DNA editing by the CRISPR-Cas system is based on short RNA-DNA base pairing1,3,4. Compared with ZFNs and TALENs, genome editing with the CRISPR-Cas system is simpler, faster and more efficient. The CRISPR-Cas system has consequently been widely applied to genome editing in eukaryotic cells during the past two years1.
The CRISPR-Cas system, an adaptive immunity system against foreign nucleic acid invaders in prokaryotes, exists in most archaea and numerous bacteria5. The system has been categorized into three types (I, II and III) based on the Cas genes and CRISPR sequences present6,7,8. Types I and III contain multiple CAS proteins that form a complex for degrading foreign DNA/RNA. Type II directs the cleavage of targeted foreign DNA using a single CAS9 protein, which makes it the system of choice for targeted genome engineering. In the Type-II CRISPR-Cas9 system, CRISPR RNA (crRNA) hybridizes with a small trans-activating CRISPR RNA (trancrRNA) to form mature dual crRNA9,10. The mature crRNA combines with Cas9 to form a functional complex. When the complex recognizes a short seed sequence in the vicinity of a typical 5’-NGG-3’ protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) by RNA/DNA base pairing, Cas9 cleaves the target DNA11,12,13. Mature crRNA containing trancrRNA and crRNA can be replaced in the laboratory with a single synthetic guide RNA (sgRNA)10. Consequently, only sgRNA and Cas9 protein are needed to make genome editing simple and efficient. The CRISPR-Cas9 system has been widely applied in genetic studies of prokaryotes and eukaryotes over the past two years14.
In plants, the CRISPR-Cas9 system has been successfully used in various species including Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, rice, tobacco, sorghum, wheat, maize, orange and liverwort15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22. In these applications, Cas9 is expressed by the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35s promoter or a gene-specific promoter. A nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence is fused to the Cas9 gene, which delivers CAS9 to the genomic nuclei. To design the sgRNA, the 20-bp sequence following the PAM in the target DNA is selected as the sgRNA seed. These 20-bp sgRNA seed regions are abundant in plant genomes16, with more than 90% of rice genes containing a specific sgRNA seed23. Several software programs have been developed to identify target-specific sgRNA seeds24,25,26. RNA polymerase-III promoters such as U6 and U3 are typically used to express the sgRNA27. These polymerase-III promoters express transcripts with a purine initiated at the first nucleotide. The purine may or may not affect base pairing between the sgRNA and the target DNA. The CaMV 35s promoter is also used to express the sgRNA without an additional nucleotide21. Several different sgRNAs can be co-expressed within a single CRISPR-Cas9 system to target multiple DNA sites simultaneously. In plants, DSBs induced by CRISPR-Cas9 can be repaired by HR or NHEJ, the latter primarily responsible for genomic insertion or deletion (indel) mutations. The CRISPR-Cas9 system is a highly efficient tool to obtain targeted mutant transgenic plants with a high frequency of mutation27. Biallelic mutations have also been observed at high frequencies in T0 transgenic plants16,19. Mutations can be stably inherited in the next generation28,29,30. The CRISPR-Cas9 system is a powerful tool for the advancement of function genomics research. Targeted mutagenesis has also been applied to crop improvement. In wheat, TaMLO mutants induced by the CRISPR-Cas9 system have shown broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew31.
Mutagenesis has played an important role in functional genomics over the past two decades. Targeted mutagenesis is an efficient tool for functional genomics research. Although ZFNs have been used in recent years for targeted mutagenesis in soybean (Glycine max L.)32, construction difficulties, high cost and modest efficacy limit their application1. In this study, we used the CRISPR-Cas9 system to efficiently perform targeted mutagenesis in soybean protoplasts and hairy roots. Targeted mutagenesis using the CRISPR-Cas9 system can advance soybean functional genomic research, especially that of genes involved in roots and nodules.
Prediction of U6 promoters in soybean
The U6 promoter is typically used to drive the expression of sgRNA in various plants27. The Arabidopsis U6-26 promoter has been used to generate sgRNA in Arabidopsis and N. benthamiana; the rice U6 promoter has been used in rice and sorghum. By comparison with the Arabidopsis U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) sequence, we predicted 11 U6 genes in the soybean genome. These 11 U6 genes were distributed on seven chromosomes, with 2 U6 genes (U6-7 and U6-8) clustered on a 6.1-kb fragment on chromosome 16 (Supplementary Table S1). Plant U6 promoters contain the following two conserved elements: an upstream sequence element (USE; consensus sequence RTCCCACATCG) and a TATA-like box33. These two elements, separated by a suitable distance, are necessary for U6 gene transcription33. Promoter sequences of the 11 U6 genes were extracted from the soybean genome. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that the U6-5 promoter had a C-nucleotide deletion in the USE, whereas the other 10 U6 promoters contained both conserved elements (Fig. 1). The USE and TATA-like-box conserved sequences in soybean are RTCCCACA(T/C)(T/C)G and GTTTATA, respectively. The presence of these conserved elements suggests that the 10 soybean U6 promoters may have the transcriptional activity to generate sgRNAs in soybean.
Evaluation of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for gene editing in soybean
We constructed two binary vectors to express sgRNAs and Cas9 for gene editing (Fig. 2). In both vectors, the CaMV 35s promoter was used to drive the expression of Cas9. Two RNA polymerase-III (Pol III) promoters, AtU6-26 and GmU6-10, were selected to generate sgRNAs in the two vectors (pCas9-AtU6-sgRNA and pCas9-GmU6-sgRNA, respectively). Two BsaI sequences, easily replaceable by 20-bp sgRNA seed sequences, were introduced between the U6 promoter and the sgRNA scaffold in the vectors.
To detect the activity of these two vectors in soybean, we selected three genes (Glyma06g14180, Glyma08g02290 and Glyma12g37050) as targets for gene editing in soybean. For each gene, we designed a different sgRNA seed with a restriction site in the vicinity of the PAM (Supplementary Table S2). A total of six binary vectors were therefore generated to evaluate targeted mutagenesis in this study.
Targeted mutagenesis in soybean protoplasts
We first verified the activity of the CRISPR-Cas9 system in soybean protoplasts. The vectors were transformed into soybean protoplasts using the polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated transformation method. After 48 h of incubation in darkness at room temperature, the transformed protoplasts were collected for genomic DNA extraction. A restriction enzyme PCR (RE-PCR) assay was used to detect mutations in the targeted genes. The genomic DNAs for various targeted mutant genes were completely digested with restriction enzymes. The mutant genes were not digested as they lost the enzyme sites and could be amplified using the gene-specific primers. The PCR results confirmed that all six vectors were able to induce targeted gene mutations (Fig. 3a). Sequence analysis revealed that nucleotide substitutions had occurred in Glyma06g14180 and Glyma12g37050 (Figs. 3b,c), suggesting that the DSBs in these two genes were repaired by the HR pathway in the soybean protoplasts. One nucleotide deletion and one substitution were found in Glyma08g02290 (Figs. 3b,c). The DSBs of Glyma08g02290 were repaired through both the HR and NHEJ pathways in soybean protoplasts.
Targeted mutagenesis in soybean hairy roots
Agrobacterium rhizogenes (A. rhizogenes)-mediated transformation is a rapid, efficient, simple and inexpensive method for the studying soybean root biology34. To detect the targeted gene mutations in soybean roots, we introduced the six binary vectors into A. rhizogenes strain K599 and then infected soybean seedling hypocotyls to induce hairy roots. Genomic DNA was collected and extracted for further detection of the target gene mutations from the hairy roots for each of the six vectors. Soybean is a diploid plant and genes have two copies in the homologous chromosomes. The target gene induced by the CRISPR-Cas9 system has three types in the hairy roots. Type I is no mutation of the target gene. Type II is a monoallelic mutation where one gene is mutated and the other allelic gene is no mutated. Type III is a biallelic mutation where both of the two allelic genes are mutated (Supplementary Figure S1). The gene is amplified using gene specific primers and then digested completely with the restriction enzyme (PCR-RE assay). When the gene mutation is induced by the CRISPR/Cas9 system, the restriction enzyme site in the gene is destroyed. The results of PCR-RE assay for the non-mutation show two digested bands. For the monoallelic mutation, the results are three bands with one undigested band from the mutated gene and two digested bands from non-mutated allelic gene. For the biallelic mutation, both of the two allelic genes are mutated and the PCR-RE assay shows only a single undigested band (Supplementary Figure S1). The PCR-RE assay shows that gene mutations were induced using all six vectors (Fig. 4 and Supplementary Figures S2–S7). The undigested bands from the PCR-RE assay were cloned and sequenced to confirm the mutations. Sequence analysis indicated that the types of mutations differed between the genes (Supplementary Figures S2–S7). Most Glyma06g14180 mutations were single nucleotide insertions, whereas the majority of the detected mutations in Glyma08g02290 and Glyma12g37050 involved multiple-nucleotide deletions. Although rare in the soybean hairy roots, nucleotide substitutions were the major type of mutation induced in soybean protoplasts using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Mutation efficiencies differed between the pCas9-GmU6-sgRNA and pCas9-AtU6-sgRNA vectors (Table 1), with markedly higher efficiencies obtained with all three genes using the pCas9-GmU6-sgRNA vector. Mutation efficiencies with the pCas9-GmU6-sgRNA vector for Glyma06g14180, Glyma08g02290 and Glyma12g37050 were 14.7, 20.2 and 17.9%, respectively, with corresponding efficiencies of 6.6, 3.2 and 9.7% using the pCas9-AtU6-sgRNA vector.
Biallelic mutations can be detected in T0 transgenic plants using the CRISPR-Cas9 system16,19. We detected several biallelic mutations of Glyma06g14180 and Glyma08g02290 using the PCR-RE assay (Supplementary Figures S3–S5). A higher frequency of biallelic mutants was observed in Glyma08g02290. Twelve of 19 Glyma08g02290 mutants generated using the pCas9-GmU6-sgRNA vector and 2 of 3 Glyma08g02290 mutants induced by the pCas9-AtU6-sgRNA vector were biallelic (Table 1). Sequencing of several gene clones from independent biallelic mutant roots revealed a variety of mutations per root (Fig. 5), which suggests that the CRISPR-Cas9 system continued to modify the genes during hairy root development.
Off-target activity in soybean
The CRISPR-Cas9 system can tolerate several mismatches between the sgRNA seed and its target, especially in the first 12 nucleotides at the 5’ end of the sgRNA seed35,36,37, which suggests that off-target activity is common with the CRISPR-Cas9 system. We accordingly searched the soybean genome for homologs of the three targeted genes in this study. We found that Glyma06g14180 and Glyma04g40610 had the same target sequence and that the sequences of Glyma08g02290 and Glyma05g37270 were also identical to one another. Glyma12g37050 and Glyma09g00490 differed by a single nucleotide at the PAM site (AGG vs. ATG). Mutations in Glyma04g40610 and Glyma09g00490 induced by the CRISPR-CAS9 system using primers for Glyma06g14180 and Glyma12g37050 were detected in protoplasts and hairy roots (Fig. 3 and Supplementary Figures S3,S6 and S7).
In this study, we used two U6 promoters, Arabidopsis U6-26 and soybean U6-10, to generate sgRNA. Mutation efficiencies in the three target genes were significantly increased by the use of the soybean U6-10 promoter (Table 1), which may be related to the U6 promoter activity. The transcriptional efficiency of the different U6 promoters varies in Arabidopsis38. Eleven U6 promoters were predicted in soybean, which provided the opportunity to select a suitable U6 promoter for the expression of sgRNA in soybean. The choice of promoter is critical, as high concentrations of the Cas9-sgRNA complex can increase off-target activity35,37.
Mutagenesis is a powerful tool for the studying gene function. The mutations induced by T-DNA insertion, chemical agents and physical treatments are random, which make it difficult to obtain the target mutants. Targeted mutagenesis technologies, such as TALEN, ZFN and CRISPR-Cas9 approaches, are powerful tools to generate target gene mutations. Compared with TALENs and ZFNs, the CRISPR-Cas9 system efficiently produces mutations and is easy to use1. In this study, we successfully used the CRISPR-Cas9 system for target gene mutation in soybean. The mutation efficiencies are ranged from 14.7% to 20.2% (Table 1). Sequencing of several gene clones from the mutant roots revealed that the CRISPR-Cas9 system continued to modify the genes during hairy root development, which suggests that the mutation efficiency would be increased given enough time for the development of the transgenic plants. The high efficiency of the target gene mutation can improve the research on gene function in soybean.
Biallelic mutations can be detected and their phenotypes observed in T0 transgenic plants using the CRISPR-Cas9 system16,19. In a study by Ron et al.39, the CRISPR-Cas9 system mediated by A. rhizogenes was used to produce a targeted mutation in the SHORT-ROOT (SHR) gene in tomato transgenic hairy roots. The phenotype of the resulting mutant was consistent with Arabidopsis shr mutants. In our study, biallelic mutations in Glyma06g14180 and Glyma08g02290 were detected in transgenic hairy roots (Fig. 5 and Supplementary Figures S3-S5). Glyma08g02290 had a higher number of biallelic mutations, with 12 of 19 root samples showing mutations (Table 1). Biallelic mutants can be detected easily using the PCR-RE assay (Supplementary Figures S3-S5). Biallelic mutants are the ideal materials for researching gene function. Compared to the inefficient and time-consuming transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens), transformation mediated by A. rhizogenes is easy, quick and efficient in soybean34. Transgenic hairy roots can be obtained within one month with transformation efficiencies up to 80%. A large number of genes involved in the roots and nodules have been identified in soybean by next-generation sequencing40. It would be easy to generate the target gene mutants using the CRISPR-Cas9 system mediated by A. rhizogenes, which would lead to advances in soybean root biology research.
Off-target activity is common using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. In our study, we detected off-target gene mutations for Glyma06g14180 and Glyma12g37050 (Fig. 3 and Supplementary Figures S3, S6 and S7). Off-target activity limits the application of the CRISPR-Cas9 system, but several methods are available to reduce this impediment. Decreasing sgRNA-Cas9 concentrations can increase on-target specificity in vitro35,37. Off-target activity can be reduced 50- to 1500-fold using double-nicking mediated by a Cas9 nickase mutant (Cas9n)41. Use of truncated gRNAs (tru-gRNAs), a shorter sgRNA seed (typically 17 or 18 nucleotides) complementary to the target, can also decrease off-target activity by 5000-fold or more42. Although these methods can effectively reduce off-target activity, the best strategy is identification of gene-specific sgRNA seeds. Fortunately, 97.3% of annotated transcription units (TUs) have specific sgRNA seeds in soybean; these TU-specific sgRNA seeds can be identified by searching the CRISPR-PLANT database (http://www.genome.arizona.edu/crispr)43.
Some mutation libraries have been developed by chemical agents and physical treatments in soybean44,45,46, but the mutants induced by these treatments are random and complex. T-DNA-induced mutagenesis has been widely applied in model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice47,48. Successful T-DNA insertion mainly depends on efficient of A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation. In soybean, the creation of large numbers of mutants using T-DNA insertion is not feasible, as transformation efficiency mediated by A. tumefaciens is low in this species. Nevertheless, the acquisition of target mutants is still time-consuming and inefficient because T-DNA-based mutagenesis is random. Off-target activity can be exploited for the construction of a saturated gene mutation library in soybean. The CRISPR-Cas9 system can tolerate several mismatches between the sgRNA seed and its target, especially in the first 12 nucleotides at the 5’ end of the sgRNA seed35,36,49. With respect to these 12 nucleotides, sgRNA seeds having fewer than four mismatches with other sequences in our study were considered to be non-specific sgRNA seeds. A total of 13,103,481 sgRNA seeds were predicted in soybean genes, of which 5,631,730 were specific and 7,469,546 were non-specific (Supplementary Figure S8). The number of specific sgRNA seeds as well as their coverage (99.5% of soybean genes) is consistent with results obtained by Xie et al.43. The huge quantity of non-specific sgRNA seeds allows the targeting of two or more genes in one transformation in soybean (Fig. 6a). Off-target activity produces numerous mutations covering different genes in T0 transgenic soybeans. The resulting mutants can be segregated to produce unique mutations in the progeny, which, similar to the application of Ac/Ds transposons or Tnt1 retrotransposons in T-DNA transformations, improves mutation efficiency50,51. In our study, the seeds of Glyma06g14180 or Glyma12g37050 were detected to produce two gene mutations (Glyma06g14180 and Glyma04g40610, Glyma12g37050 and Glyma09g00490) respectively in one transgenic plant (Figure S3, S6 and S7). By exploiting off-target activity, the number of transgenic soybean plants required to produce a saturated mutation library can be reduced dramatically (Fig. 6b).
The soybean cultivar Williams 82 was used in this study. In preparation for A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation, seeds were sterilized for 7 h with chlorine gas. Seeds were germinated under 16-h light/8-h dark at 25 °C in a humidity chamber. After one week, healthy plants were selected for transformation. To generate protoplasts, seeds were germinated under 16-h light/8-h dark at 25 °C in a low-humidity chamber. Fresh leaves were collected for protoplast preparation from 2-week-old seedlings.
A codon-optimized cas9 gene with a NLS was obtained from Professor Qu (Qu, State Key Laboratory for Protein and Plant Gene Research, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Peking University). The cas9 gene was amplified by phusion polymerase (NEB, Massachusetts, USA) using cas9-specific primers (Supplementary Table S3) and cloned into pCambia3301 vector by replacing of the gus gene.
Arabidopsis U6-26 and soybean U6-10 promoters with sgRNA were synthesized (Genscript, Nanjing, China) (Supplementary Figure S9 and S10) and cloned into pUC57-Kan vectors to generate pUC57-AtU6-26-sgRNA and pUC57-GmU6-10-sgRNA plasmids, respectively. These two plasmids were digested completely using BsaI (NEB, Massachusetts, USA) and purified with a TIANquick Midi purification kit (Tiangen, Beijing, China). Three target gene oligonucleotides (Supplementary Table S2) were annealed to form sgRNA seeds and were then ligated into the pUC57-AtU6-26-sgRNA and pUC57-GmU6-10-sgRNA vectors. These six vectors and the pCambia3301-Cas9 vector were digested completely using EcoRI and HindIII. After digestion, the pCambia3301-Cas9 vector and AtU6-26-sgRNAs and GmU6-10-sgRNAs of different genes were purified with a TIANgel Midi purification kit (Tiangen, Beijing, China) and ligated overnight using T4 DNA ligase (Fermentas) to obtain pCas9-AtU6-sgRNA and pCas9-GmU6-sgRNA vectors for different target genes.
Protoplast isolation and transformation
Soybean protoplasts were prepared from fresh leaves as described by Yoo et al.52 with some modifications. Briefly, 20 fresh leaves were cut into small strips and immediately transferred into 10 ml digestion solution (0.5% cellulose R10, 0.5% macerozyme R10, 0.1% pectolase Y23, 0.6 M mannitol, 10 mM 4-morpholineethanesulfonic acid (MES) pH 5.7, 20 mM KCl, 10 mM CaCl2 and 0.1% BSA). The leaf strips were vacuum infiltrated for 30 min in the dark using a vacuum pump at −15 to −20 mm Hg and digested for 6 h with agitation at 30 rpm. The other steps are followed as described by Yoo et al.52. The protoplasts were re-suspended in MGG solution (4 mM MES pH 5.7, 0.4 M mannitol, 15 mM MgCl2) for the plasmid transformation. Plasmids were transformed into protoplasts mediated by PEG as described by Yoo et al.52.
Transformation mediated by A. rhizogenes
The binary vectors were transformed into soybean by A. rhizogenes as described by Kereszt et al.34.
Detection of mutations in target genes
Genomic DNA was extracted using a DNAquick Plant System (Tiangen, Beijing, China) according to the manufacturer’s protocol with a minor modification: genomic DNA from soybean hairy roots was precipitated using Dr.GenTLE Precipitation Carrier (Takara, Dalian, China). To detect mutations in soybean protoplasts, the genomic DNA was digested with restriction enzyme (PstI, BamHI and EcoRI for mutant detection of Glyma06g14180, Glyma08g02290 and Glyma12g37050 respectively). After digestion, the target genes were amplified with gene-specific primers and the PCR fragments were ligated to an pEASY-T1 vector (Transgen, Beijing, China) for sequencing. To detect mutations in hairy roots, the target genes were amplified by PCR using gene-specific primers (Supplementary Table S3). The PCR products were purified using TIANquick N96 Purification kit (Transgen, Beijing, China) and digested for three hours with PstI, BamHI and EcoRI, respectively. The undigested bands were purified using a TIANgel Midi purification kit (Tiangen, Beijing, China) and then ligated to a pEASY-T1 vector (Transgen, Beijing, China). Several clones were randomly selected and sequenced to detect gene mutations.
Soybean genome and annotation data were downloaded from the plantGDB database (http://www.plantgdb.org/). The bioinformatic analysis pipeline was primarily constructed using customized Perl scripts and the USEARCH program53. For specificity assessment of sgRNA seeds, 20-nt long sgRNA spacer sequences adjacent to NGG PAM sites were excluded from both strands of the soybean chromosome sequences. For specificity analysis, sgRNA seeds were first grouped according to the identity of the eight nucleotides at the 3–’, end. The first 12 nucleotides at the 5–’, end were then compared among members of the same group. sgRNA seeds with no less than four mismatches were regarded as specific candidates; the remaining seeds, including repeat sequences, were considered to be non-specific.
How to cite this article: Sun, X. et al. Targeted mutagenesis in soybean using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Sci. Rep. 5, 10342; doi: 10.1038/srep10342 (2015).
Chen, K. & Gao, C. Targeted genome modification technologies and their applications in crop improvements. Plant Cell Rep. 33, 575–583 (2014).
Wyman, C. & Kanaar, R. DNA double-strand break repair: all’s well that ends well. Annu. Rev. Genet. 40, 363–383 (2006).
Gaj, T., Gersbach, C. A. & Barbas, C. F., 3rd . ZFN, TALEN and CRISPR/Cas-based methods for genome engineering. Trends Biotechnol. 31, 397–405 (2013).
Puchta, H. & Fauser, F. Synthetic nucleases for genome engineering in plants: prospects for a bright future. Plant J. 78, 727–741 (2013).
Koonin, E. V. & Makarova, K. S. CRISPR-Cas: an adaptive immunity system in prokaryotes. F1000 Biol. Rep. 1, 95 (2009).
Makarova, K. S. et al. Evolution and classification of the CRISPR-Cas systems. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 9, 467–477 (2011).
Bhaya, D., Davison, M. & Barrangou, R. CRISPR-Cas systems in bacteria and archaea: versatile small RNAs for adaptive defense and regulation. Annu. Rev. Genet. 45, 273–297 (2011).
Barrangou, R. CRISPR-Cas systems and RNA-guided interference. WIREs RNA 4, 267–278 (2013).
Deltcheva, E. et al. CRISPR RNA maturation by trans-encoded small RNA and host factor RNase III. Nature 471, 602–607 (2011).
Jinek, M. et al. A programmable dual-RNA-guided DNA endonuclease in adaptive bacterial immunity. Science 337, 816–821 (2012).
Kuscu, C., Arslan, S., Singh, R., Thorpe, J. & Adli, M. Genome-wide analysis reveals characteristics of off-target sites bound by the Cas9 endonuclease. Nat. Biotechnol. 32, 677–683 (2014).
Wu, X. et al. Genome-wide binding of the CRISPR endonuclease Cas9 in mammalian cells. Nat. Biotechnol. 32, 670–676 (2014).
Anders, C., Niewoehner, O., Duerst, A. & Jinek, M. Structural basis of PAM-dependent target DNA recognition by the Cas9 endonuclease. Nature 513, 569–573 (2014).
Hsu, P.D., Lander, E. S. & Zhang, F. Development and applications of CRISPR-Cas9 for genome engineering. Cell 157, 1262–1278 (2014).
Nekrasov, V., Staskawicz, B., Weigel, D., Jones, J. D. & Kamoun, S. Targeted mutagenesis in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana using Cas9 RNA-guided endonuclease. Nat. Biotechnol. 31, 691–693 (2013).
Shan, Q. et al. Targeted genome modification of crop plants using a CRISPR-Cas system. Nat. Biotechnol. 31, 686–688 (2013).
Li, J. F. et al. Multiplex and homologous recombination–mediated genome editing in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana using guide RNA and Cas9. Nat. Biotechnol. 31, 688–691 (2013).
Feng, Z. et al. Efficient genome editing in plants using a CRISPR/Cas system. Cell Res. 23, 1229–1232 (2013).
Miao, J. et al. Targeted mutagenesis in rice using CRISPR-Cas system. Cell Res. 23, 1233–1236 (2013).
Jiang, W. et al. Demonstration of CRISPR/Cas9/sgRNA-mediated targeted gene modification in Arabidopsis, tobacco, sorghum and rice. Nucleic Acids Res. 41, e188 (2013).
Jia, H. & Wang, N. Targeted genome editing of sweet orange using Cas9/sgRNA. PLoS One 9, e93806 (2014).
Fauser, F., Schiml, S. & Puchta, H. Both CRISPR/Cas-based nucleases and nickases can be used efficiently for genome engineering in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 79, 348–359 (2014).
Xie, K. & Yang, Y. RNA-guided genome editing in plants using a CRISPR-Cas system. Mol. Plant 6, 1975–1983 (2013).
Xiao, A. et al. CasOT: a genome-wide Cas9/gRNA off-target searching tool. Bioinformatics 30, 1180–1182 (2014).
Bae, S., Park, J. & Kim, J. S. Cas-OFFinder: a fast and versatile algorithm that searches for potential off-target sites of Cas9 RNA-guided endonucleases. Bioinformatics 30, 1473–1475 (2014).
Xie, S. S., Shen, B., Zhang, C. B., Huang, X. X. & Zhang, Y. L. sgRNAcas9: A Software Package for Designing CRISPR sgRNA and Evaluating Potential Off-Target Cleavage Sites. PLoS One 9, e100448 (2014).
Belhaj, K., Chaparro-Garcia, A., Kamoun, S. & Nekrasov, V. Plant genome editing made easy: targeted mutagenesis in model and crop plants using the CRISPR/Cas system. Plant Methods 9, 39 (2013).
Feng, Z. et al. Multigeneration analysis reveals the inheritance, specificity and patterns of CRISPR/Cas-induced gene modifications in Arabidopsis. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, 4632–4637 (2014).
Zhang, H. et al. The CRISPR/Cas9 system produces specific and homozygous targeted gene editing in rice in one generation. Plant Biotechnol. J. 12, 797–807 (2014).
Jiang, W. Z., Yang, B. & Weeks, D. P. Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Gene Editing in Arabidopsis thaliana and Inheritance of Modified Genes in the T2 and T3 Generations. PLoS One 9, e99225 (2014).
Wang, Y. et al. Simultaneous editing of three homoeoalleles in hexaploid bread wheat confers heritable resistance to powdery mildew. Nat. Biotechnol. 32, 947–951 (2014).
Curtin, S. J. et al. Targeted mutagenesis of duplicated genes in soybean with zinc-finger nucleases. Plant Physiol 156, 466–473 (2011).
Waibel, F. & Filipowicz, W. U6 snRNA genes of Arabidopsis are transcribed by RNA polymerase III but contain the same two upstream promoter elements as RNA polymerase II-transcribed U-snRNA genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 18, 3451–3458 (1990).
Kereszt, A. et al. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of soybean to study root biology. Nat. Protoc. 2, 948–952 (2007).
Hsu, P. D. et al. DNA targeting specificity of RNA-guided Cas9 nucleases. Nat. Biotechnol. 31, 827–832 (2013).
Fu, Y. et al. High-frequency off-target mutagenesis induced by CRISPR-Cas nucleases in human cells. Nat. Biotechnol. 31, 822–826 (2013).
Pattanayak, V. et al. High-throughput profiling of off-target DNA cleavage reveals RNA-programmed Cas9 nuclease specificity. Nat. Biotechnol. 31, 839–843 (2013).
Li, X., Jiang, D. H., Yong, K. & Zhang, D. B. Varied Transcriptional Efficiencies of Multiple Arabidopsis U6 Small Nuclear RNA Genes. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 49, 222–229 (2007).
Ron, M. et al. Hairy Root Transformation Using Agrobacterium rhizogenes as a Tool for Exploring Cell Type-Specific Gene Expression and Function Using Tomato as a Model. Plant Physiol 166, 455–469 (2014).
Severin, A. J. et al. RNA-Seq Atlas of Glycine max: a guide to the soybean transcriptome. BMC Plant Biol. 10, 160 (2010).
Ran, F. A. et al. Double nicking by RNA-guided CRISPR Cas9 for enhanced genome editing specificity. Cell 154, 1380–1389 (2013).
Fu, Y., Sander, J. D., Reyon, D., Cascio, V. M. & Joung, J. K. Improving CRISPR-Cas nuclease specificity using truncated guide RNAs. Nat. Biotechnol. 32, 279–284 (2014).
Xie, K., Zhang, J. & Yang, Y. Genome-wide prediction of highly specific guide RNA spacers for CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing in model plants and major crops. Mol. Plant 7, 923–926 (2014).
Cooper, J. L. et al. TILLING to detect induced mutations in soybean. BMC Plant Biol 8, 9 (2008).
Bolon, Y. T. et al. Phenotypic and genomic analyses of a fast neutron mutant population resource in soybean. Plant Physiol 156, 240–253 (2011).
Anai, T. Potential of a mutant-based reverse genetic approach for functional genomics and molecular breeding in soybean. Breed Sci 61, 462–467 (2012).
Fu, F. F., Ye, R., Xu, S. P. & Xue, H. W. Studies on rice seed quality through analysis of a large-scale T-DNA insertion population. Cell Res. 19, 380–391 (2009).
Alonso, J. M. et al. Genome-wide insertional mutagenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana. Science 301, 653–657 (2003).
Pattanayak, V. et al. High-throughput profiling of off-target DNA cleavage reveals RNA-programmed Cas9 nuclease specificity. Nat Biotechnol 31, 839–843 (2013).
Cui, Y. et al. Tnt1 retrotransposon mutagenesis: a tool for soybean functional genomics. Plant Physiol 161, 36–47 (2013).
Mathieu, M. et al. Establishment of a soybean (Glycine max Merr. L) transposon-based mutagenesis repository. Planta 229, 279–289 (2009).
Yoo, S. D., Cho, Y. H. & Sheen, J. Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts: a versatile cell system for transient gene expression analysis. Nat. Protoc. 2, 1565–1572 (2007).
Edgar, R. C. Search and clustering orders of magnitude faster than BLAST. Bioinformatics 26, 2460–2461 (2010).
We thank Dr. Lijia Qu for kindly providing the Cas9 gene used in this study. We thank Dr. Jin Miao for helpful advice on vector construction. This study was supported by the National Transgenic Key Project from the Ministry of Agriculture of China (2014ZX08011-003) and the Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
Electronic supplementary material
About this article
Cite this article
Sun, X., Hu, Z., Chen, R. et al. Targeted mutagenesis in soybean using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Sci Rep 5, 10342 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1038/srep10342
BoCER1 is essential for the synthesis of cuticular wax in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata)
Scientia Horticulturae (2021)
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (2021)
Frontiers in Plant Science (2020)
Development of a Highly Efficient Multiplex Genome Editing System in Outcrossing Tetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)
Frontiers in Plant Science (2020)