Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

The synthetic elements at the end of the periodic table

Chemical synthesis typically draws on the roughly 90 elements found in nature and transforms them into fantastic things, which serve all imaginable needs of humankind. However, there are more than just these 90 elements in the periodic table. The synthesis of the heaviest elements, one atom at a time, is discussed here.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Fig. 1: The periodic table of the elements highlighting the transuranium elements.


  1. Öhrström, L. & Reedijk, J. Pure Appl. Chem 88, 1225–1229 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. de Marcillac, P. et al. Nature 422, 876–878 (2003).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Roberto, J. B. et al. Nucl. Phys. A 944, 99–116 (2015).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Oganessian, Ts. Yu. & Utyonkov, V. K. Nucl. Phys. A 944, 62–98 (2015).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Düllmann, Ch. E. EPJ Web Conf. 163, 00015 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Morita, K. et al. J. Phys. Soc. Jpn 81, 103201 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Türler, A. & Pershina, V. Chem. Rev. 113, 1237–1312 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Even, J. et al. Science 345, 1491–1493 (2014).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Yakushev, A. & Eichler, R. EPJ Web Conf. 131, 07003 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Pyykkö, P. Chem. Rev. 88, 563–594 (1988).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Goeppert Mayer, M. Phys. Rev. 75, 1969–1970 (1949).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Myers, W. D. & Swiatecki, W. J. Nucl. Phys. 81, 1–60 (1966).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Kostecka, K. Bull. Hist. Chem. 33, 89–93 (2008).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Bennett, G. L. et al. AIP Conf. Proc. 969, 663–671 (2008).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Christoph E. Düllmann.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The author declares no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Düllmann, C.E. The synthetic elements at the end of the periodic table. Nat Synth 1, 105–106 (2022).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing