The climate of South America (SA) has long held an intimate connection with El Niño, historically describing anomalously warm sea-surface temperatures off the coastline of Peru. Indeed, throughout SA, precipitation and temperature exhibit a substantial, yet regionally diverse, relationship with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). For example, El Niño is typically accompanied by drought in the Amazon and north-eastern SA, but flooding in the tropical west coast and south-eastern SA, with marked socio-economic effects. In this Review, we synthesize the understanding of ENSO teleconnections to SA. Recent efforts have sought improved understanding of ocean–atmosphere processes that govern the impact, inter-event and decadal variability, and responses to anthropogenic warming. ENSO’s impacts have been found to vary markedly, affected not only by ENSO diversity, but also by modes of variability within and outside of the Pacific. However, while the understanding of ENSO–SA relationships has improved, with implications for prediction and projection, uncertainty remains in regards to the robustness of the impacts, inter-basin climate interactions and interplay with greenhouse warming. A coordinated international effort is, therefore, needed to close the observational, theoretical and modelling gaps currently limiting progress, with specific efforts in extending palaeoclimate proxies further back in time, reducing systematic model errors and improving simulations of ENSO diversity and teleconnections.
The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences South America (SA) by modifying a unique set of meteorological processes linked to coastal-warming-induced convection, the Walker circulation or Rossby-wave-train-related atmospheric-circulation anomalies.
El Niño impacts on SA feature a pattern with floods along the west coast of Ecuador and Peru, and Colombia, and drought in the Amazon and north-east of the continent.
ENSO’s impact is modulated by a multitude of factors, including event diversity within ENSO itself, other modes of climate variability within and outside the Pacific, inter-basin climate interactions and greenhouse warming, making its seasonal prediction challenging.
Greenhouse-warming-induced rainfall reductions can overwhelm El Niño-related rainfall increases, as already found in central Chile, leading to persistent dry conditions.
Although uncertainty exists, there is a projected intensification of ENSO’s impact on SA under greenhouse warming, which is likely to be exacerbated by the mean state change.
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This work is supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFA0605700). W.C., A.S., B.N. and G.W. are supported by the CSHOR and the Earth System and Climate Change Hub of the Australian Government’s National Environment Science Program. The CSHOR is a joint research Centre for Southern Hemisphere Oceans Research between the Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (QNLM) and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). R.R. is supported by CNPq grant (401873/2016-1), CAPES (88881.145866/2017-1), Program INCT-MCII and Rede CLIMA. A.M.G. acknowledges the support of CNPq (Brazil). A.S.T. is supported by the Australian Research Council (ARC FT160100495). B.D. is supported by Fondecyt grant (1171861) and ANR. G.P. is supported by Universidad Nacional de Colombia at Medellin, Colombia. Y.-G.H. is funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant (KMI2018-07010). W.A. is supported from the Earth Institute Postdoctoral Fellows program. J.M. is supported by the National Institute of Science and Technology for Climate Change Phase 2 under CNPq grant (465501/2014-1), FAPESP grant (2014/50848-9) and CAPES grant (88887.136402-00INCT). L.M.A. is supported by Sao Paulo Research Foundation Grant FAPESP (#2015/50122-0), DFG-GRTK (1740/2) and INCR-Climate change project Phase 2 (CNPq465501/2014-1/Public call MCTI/CNPQ/CAPES/FAPS no. 16/2014). L.W. is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China projects (41490640 and 41490643). C.K. is supported by US NSF award (AGS-1902970). M.J.M. is supported by NOAA. This is PMEL contribution no. 5039. M.O. and C.V were supported by Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) PIP 112-20120100626CO, UBACyT 20020130100489BA and Belmont Forum/ANR-15-JCL/-0002-01 CLIMAX.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Cai, W., McPhaden, M.J., Grimm, A.M. et al. Climate impacts of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation on South America. Nat Rev Earth Environ 1, 215–231 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s43017-020-0040-3
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