Beach nourishment has complex implications for the future of sandy shores


Beach nourishment — the addition of sand to increase the width or sand volume of the beach — is a widespread coastal management technique to counteract coastal erosion. Globally, rising sea levels, storms and diminishing sand supplies threaten beaches and the recreational, ecosystem, groundwater and flood protection services they provide. Consequently, beach nourishment practices have evolved from focusing on maximizing the time sand stays on the beach to also encompassing human safety and water recreation, groundwater dynamics and ecosystem impacts. In this Perspective, we present a multidisciplinary overview of beach nourishment, discussing physical aspects of beach nourishment alongside ecological and socio-economic impacts. The future of beach nourishment practices will vary depending on local vulnerability, sand availability, financial resources, government regulations and efficiencies, and societal perceptions of environmental risk, recreational uses, ecological conservation and social justice. We recommend co-located, multidisciplinary research studies on the combined impacts of nourishments, and explorations of various designs to guide these globally diverse nourishment practices.

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Fig. 1: Beach nourishment projects.
Fig. 2: Evolution of sandy beach nourishments.
Fig. 3: Groundwater processes related to nourishments.
Fig. 4: Potential ecological changes during and following beach nourishment.
Fig. 5: Integration of impacts into nourishment design.


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M.A.deS. acknowledges financial support from NWO Domain Applied and Engineering Sciences under project code 15058. B.C.L. acknowledges financial support from United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), California Department of Parks and Recreation, Natural Resources Division Oceanography Program and the Copley Foundation. B.R. acknowledges financial support from U.S. National Science Foundation, USACE and the WHOI Investment in Science Fund. A.P.L. is supported by the Deltares Strategic Research Programme ‘Coastal and Offshore Engineering’. Rob Grenzeback, Lucian Parry and Brian Woodward (Scripps Institution of Oceanography) are thanked for providing feedback on the latest survey techniques. Sumi Selvaraj and Carey Batha (California Coastal Commission) are thanked for their helpful discussions about coastal management and social justice. Seok-Bong Lee is thanked for providing information on South Korean nourishments.

Author information




M.A.deS. and B.C.L. conceived the project. All co-authors contributed to the writing and editing of the manuscript. M.A.deS. and B.C.L. gave special attention to the ‘Introduction’, ‘Sand redistribution’, ‘Broader impacts’, ‘Integrating perspectives’ and ‘Future directions’ sections. B.R. gave special attention to the ‘Groundwater impacts’ and ‘Integrating perspectives’ sections. A.P.L. gave special attention to the ‘Sand redistribution’ section. T.A.S. gave special attention to the ‘Ecological impacts’, ‘Integrating perspectives’ and ‘Future directions’ sections. M.A.deS. compiled edits of the text and finalized them, in collaboration with the editor.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Matthieu A. de Schipper.

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Nature Reviews Earth & Environment thanks Feng Cai, José Jiménez, Amaia Ruiz de Alegria Arzaburu and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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de Schipper, M.A., Ludka, B.C., Raubenheimer, B. et al. Beach nourishment has complex implications for the future of sandy shores. Nat Rev Earth Environ 2, 70–84 (2021).

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