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Fully portable and wireless universal brain–machine interfaces enabled by flexible scalp electronics and deep learning algorithm


Variation in human brains creates difficulty in implementing electroencephalography into universal brain–machine interfaces. Conventional electroencephalography systems typically suffer from motion artefacts, extensive preparation time and bulky equipment, while existing electroencephalography classification methods require training on a per-subject or per-session basis. Here, we introduce a fully portable, wireless, flexible scalp electronic system, incorporating a set of dry electrodes and a flexible membrane circuit. Time-domain analysis using convolutional neural networks allows for accurate, real-time classification of steady-state visually evoked potentials in the occipital lobe. Compared to commercial systems, the flexible electronics show the improved performance in detection of evoked potentials due to significant reduction of noise and electromagnetic interference. The two-channel scalp electronic system achieves a high information transfer rate (122.1 ± 3.53 bits per minute) with six human subjects, allowing for wireless, real-time, universal electroencephalography classification for an electric wheelchair, a motorized vehicle and a keyboard-less presentation.

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Fig. 1: Overview of the system architecture featuring fully portable and wireless scalp electronics.
Fig. 2: Mechanical flexibility and stretchability of the scalp electronics.
Fig. 3: Comparison of device signal quality and classification accuracy.
Fig. 4: EEG classification with CNNs.
Fig. 5: In vivo demonstration of the SKINTRONICS BMI with human subjects.

Data availability

The EEG data recorded for this work are available on the Open Science Framework (

Code availability

The code for the CNN models are available on GitLab (


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W.-H.Y. acknowledges a grant from the Fundamental Research Program (project PNK5061) of Korea Institute of Materials Science, funding by the Nano-Material Technology Development Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (no. 2016M3A7B4900044), and support from the Institute for Electronics and Nanotechnology, a member of the National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure, which is supported by the National Science Foundation (grant ECCS-1542174).

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Authors and Affiliations



M.M. and W.-H.Y. designed the research project; M.M., D.M., Y.-S.K., Y.L., R.H., A.D., S.M., C.S.A. and W.-H.Y. performed research; M.M., D.M., A.D., C.S.A. and W.-H.Y. analysed data; and M.M., D.M., C.S.A. and W.-H.Y. wrote the paper.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Woon-Hong Yeo.

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Competing interests

W.-H.Y. and M.M. are the inventors on a pending US patent application.

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Mahmood, M., Mzurikwao, D., Kim, YS. et al. Fully portable and wireless universal brain–machine interfaces enabled by flexible scalp electronics and deep learning algorithm. Nat Mach Intell 1, 412–422 (2019).

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