Abstract
The detection of gravitational waves emitted during a neutron star–black hole merger and the associated electromagnetic counterpart will provide a wealth of information about stellar evolution nuclear matter, and general relativity. While the theoretical framework about neutron star–black hole binaries formed in isolation is well established, the picture is loosely constrained for those forming via dynamical interactions. Here, we use Nbody simulations to show that mergers forming in globular and nuclear clusters could display distinctive marks compared to isolated mergers, namely larger masses, heavier black holes, and the tendency to have no associated electromagnetic counterpart. These features could represent a useful tool to interpreting forthcoming observations. In the local Universe, gravitational waves emitted from dynamical mergers could be unraveled by detectors sensitive in the decihertz frequency band, while those occurring at the distance range of Andromeda and the Virgo Cluster could be accessible to lowerfrequency detectors like LISA.
Introduction
The third observational campaign, O3, operated by the LIGO–Virgo Collaboration will enlarge the family of gravitationalwave (GW) sources, currently comprised of 11 confirmed black hole (BH) binary and 1 neutron star (NS) binary mergers^{1}. The loot of observations accumulated during O3 will hopefully include the first BH binary with component masses in the socalled upper mass gap, i.e., 50–150 M_{☉}, and the first NS–BH merger. In fact, as reported in the gravitationalwave candidate event database (GraceDB, https://gracedb.ligo.org/), both events might have been already recorded. The observation of an NS–BH merger represents a crucial cornerstone in both GW astronomy and stellar evolution and dynamics. The GW signal emitted by this type of sources encodes information about the mass ratio of the binary, the BH spin, the NS compactness, and equation of state^{2,3,4}. The next generation of GW detectors will allow us to chase these objects up to the dawn of Universe^{5}, offering us the unique chance to follow them from the inspiraling phase to the merger. The formation of an accretion disc during the merger could trigger a kilonova event^{6} and power a short Gammaray burst (sGRB)^{7}, making NS–BH mergers promising multimessenger sources. The coincident observation of GWs and a kilonova^{8}, the detection of peculiar precession in the jets produced during the sGRB^{9}, or the anisotropic emission of ejected matter^{10} are some of the proposed signatures of a putative NS–BH electromagnetic (EM) counterpart. The properties of the EM emission depend on the binary properties close to the merger. A high eccentricity, for instance, can affect the amount of mass ejected, the mass accreted onto the BH and the angular momentum transferred^{11}. The actual development of an EM counterpart is expected to depend likely on the mass ratio, the BH spin, and the NS equation of state^{2,3,4,10,11,12}. For mass ratios smaller than \(\simeq\)1/3 − 1/4, the NS undergoes tidal disruption inside the BH’s innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO), thus preventing the EM emission^{13}.
The scenarios behind NS–BH formation are still not fully understood. In the case of isolated binaries, binary population synthesis tools predict typical merger rates Γ = 9 − 100 yr^{−1} Gpc^{−3} (Gpc, gigaparsec) at redshift zero^{14,15}, nearly circular mergers^{16} with typical chirp masses^{17} \({\cal{M}}_{{\mathrm{chirp}}} = 3\,{\mathrm{M}}_ \odot\), and BHs with masses^{18} strongly peaked around m_{BH} ~ 7 M_{☉} and, in general, <20 M_{☉}. The picture is loosely constrained for NS–BH mergers formed via dynamical interactions in star clusters (globular clusters, GCs), nuclear clusters (NCs), and galactic nuclei^{19}, owing to the recent advances in our understanding of the physics governing the formation and retention of BHs and NSs. Indeed, star clusters might be able to retain longlived BH subsystems^{20,21,22}—which could persist at present in a number of Milky Way GCs^{22,23}, the detection of NS in star clusters suggest natal kicks lower than previously thought^{24,25}, and the discovery of GWs emitted by BHs as heavy as 30 M_{☉} revolutionized our knowledge of stellar evolution for single and binary stars. Large number of BHs and NSs and the presence of heavy BHs can impact significantly the probability for NS–BH binary to form and, possibly, merge. Bridging reliable stellar dynamics, uptodate stellar evolution recipes, and a detailed description of the last phases of binary evolution is crucial to assess the properties of dynamical mergers. Finding significant differences between dynamical and isolated mergers would represent a piece of crucial information to interpret future GW observations.
Here, we study the complex dynamical interactions, involving BHs and NSs in dense clusters, focusing on hyperbolic encounters between a binary, composed of a compact object and a stellar companion, and a single compact object, exploring two configurations: either the compact object in the binary is a NS and the third object is a BH (configuration NSSTBH), or viceversa (BHSTNS). Combining our simulations with observations of galactic GCs and NC in the local Universe, and with Monte Carlo simulations of GCs, we infer for dynamical NS–BH mergers an optimistic merger rate of ~0.1–0.2 events per year and Gpc cube in the case of GCs, and ~0.01 events per year and Gpc cube for NCs. Despite the small value, we find that dynamical mergers exhibit peculiarities that make them distinguishable from isolated mergers: chirp masses above 4 M_{☉}, BH masses above 20 M_{☉}, and the absence of associated EM emission if the BH is highly spinning and has a mass above 10 M_{☉}. We calculate the associated GW emission showing that these mergers can be observed with detectors sensitive in the decihertz band and even with millihertz detectors like the laser interferometer space antenna (LISA), provided that they took place at distances typical of the Andromeda Galaxy or the Virgo galaxy cluster.
Results
Dynamical formation of NS–BH binaries in star clusters
To investigate this dynamical formation channel we exploit 240,000 direct Nbody simulations that take into account uptodate stellar evolution recipes for natal BH mass^{26} and general relativistic corrections in the form of postNewtonian formalism^{27}. Figure 1 shows the trajectories of one of our simulations.
As detailed in the Method section, we vary both scattering parameters (binary semimajor axis and eccentricity, impact parameter and velocity of the third object) and environmental quantities (metallicity and velocity dispersion of the host cluster). To connect our results to real star clusters, we exploit the catalog of Milky Way GCs to find a tight relation connecting the GC velocity dispersion (σ), mass (M_{GC}), and halfmass radius (R_{GC}) (see the Method section for more details). To complement and support our simulations, we perform a deep analysis on the MOCCA Survey Database I^{28}, a collection of over 2000 Monte Carlo models of GCs that span a wide portion of the phase space and represent GCs with presentday masses M_{GC} ~ 3 × 10^{5} M_{☉} and halfmass radii R_{GC} ~ 1–3 pc. This sample allowed us to reconstruct the history of all NSSTBH and BHSTNS in 1298 models, and to derive an average scattering rate of dR_{sca}/dt = 6.3 Gyr^{−1} for configuration NSSTBH and 245.4 Gyr^{−1} for BHSTNS.
We find that a scattering results in the formation of a NS–BH in ~1.27–1.59% of the cases, with the lower(upper) value corresponding to the NSSTBH(BHSTNS) configuration, but none of them merge within a Hubble time. On average, for configuration BHSTNS the scatterings occur at ~0.01 times the cluster core radius R_{c}, whereas for NSSTBH the scattering location is broadly distributed between 0.01 and 0.3 R_{c}, but still well inside the cluster interiors. These scatterings occur late in the cluster life, usually several times the cluster halfmass relaxation time t_{rel}. Figure 2 shows the distribution of the scattering time, t_{sca}, normalized to t_{rel}, calculated at 12 Gyr.
Despite the richness of information encoded in the MOCCA database, current models represent GCs and cannot be used to describe more extreme environments like NCs. Moreover, stellar evolution for BHs is not updated yet and the treatment used for close encounters does not include general relativistic corrections. Therefore, we use Nbody simulations to perform a thorough investigation of this dynamical channel, using the analysis performed on MOCCA to: (a) compare with the scattering rate derived via Nbody simulations, and (b) infer the time at which a scattering can occur.
The probability of NS–BH mergers
To identify potential mergers in our 240,000 Nbody models, we need to associate to any newborn binary a formation time, t_{form}. This is calculated through two quantities: the scattering time t_{sca}, which we extract from the distribution of t_{sca}/t_{rel} derived for MOCCA models (Fig. 2), and the cluster relaxation time t_{rCL}, which we extract from the distribution of values calculated for 157 galactic GCs (ref. ^{29}) and 228 NCs (ref. ^{30}). The NS–BH formation time is thus calculated as t_{form} = t_{sca}/t_{rel} × t_{rCL}.
After formation, we calculate the NS–BH merger time^{31} t_{GW} and, for each candidate, we draw 100 different values of t_{form}, retaining only candidates for which the drawings is t_{form} + t_{GW} < 14 Gyr in at least 50% of the cases. Unfortunately, this requirement alone does not ensure that a merger can successfully take place. Indeed further interactions can soften and even destroy it if the NS–BH binding energy is lower than the mean kinetic energy of the environment^{32}. The limiting value of the binary semimajor axis above which this can happen is called hardbinary separation a_{h} = G(m_{1} + m_{2})/σ^{2}.
“Soft” binaries, a > a_{h}, can be disrupted by strong encounters over an evaporation time^{33,34} t_{evap} = [σ^{3}(m_{1} + m_{2})/(32πG^{1/2}2m_{*} ρ a ln Λ]^{1/3}, depending on the binary properties (m_{1}, m_{2}, a), the cluster velocity dispersion (σ), density (ρ), and average stellar mass (m_{*}), and the Coloumb logarigthm (ln Λ). Therefore, to shortlist merger candidates, we require the simultaneous fulfillment of three conditions: (i) t_{form} + t_{GW} < 14 Gyr, to avoid NS–BH binaries with delay times larger than a Hubble time, (ii) a > a_{h}, to avoid soft NS–BH binaries, and (iii) t_{GW} < t_{evap}, to avoid NS–BH binaries that can be disrupted by further interactions.
Note that the delay time calculated this way don’t account for the cluster formation time, t_{fCL}, thus among all candidates satisfying simultaneously the three conditions above only a fraction f will satisfy also t_{fCL} + t_{form} + t_{GW} < 14 Gyr. In our calculations, we assume that the majority of clusters form at redshift z ~ 2 (ref. ^{34}), corresponding to t_{fCL} ~ 10 Gyr. As shown in Fig. 3a, the fraction of merging NS–BH, p_{GW}, increases at increasing the sigma, but depends poorly on the scattering configuration (NSSTBH or BHSTNS) and the metallicity. A rough limit to the merger rate in the local Universe for NS–BH mergers in clusters can be written as^{35}:
where Γ_{c} is the merger rate per unit of time and cluster, ρ_{MWEG} = 0.0116 Mpc^{−3} is the local density of galaxies^{36}, and N_{c} is the number of clusters in a given galaxy. The merger rate per cluster is given by
where dR/dt is the rate of binary–single interactions and can be calculated combining Nbody and MOCCA models as detailed in the Method section. To infer the number of binaries that at a given time coexist in the cluster, we exploit the 12 Gyr output of MOCCA models, in the case of NSSTBH configuration a GC hosts up to 4 NS–stellar binaries in 90% of the cases, and up to 7 binaries in the remaining 10%, while for BHSTNS GCs have <4 BH–stellar binaries in the 95% of the cases, and up to 12 in the remaining 5%. In our calculations, we assume N_{bin} = 4 as a fiducial value. As shown in Fig. 3b, Γ_{c} increases at increasing the velocity dispersion, is larger for the BHSTNS configuration at fixed sigma value, and larger for lower metallicities. In all the cases, Γ_{c} is well described by a power law in the form Γ_{c} = (σ/σ_{c})^{α}. Configuration BHSTNS displays a larger Γ_{c} values due to the fact that they involve heavier binaries compared to NSSTBH, thus they are characterized by larger cross section and, thus, scattering rates.
Using the Γ_{c}–σ dependence, we can exploit Eq. (1) to calculate the merger rate for Milky Way equivalent galaxies, namely those galaxies that share similar properties with our own, like a population of N_{c} ∼ 200 metalpoor clusters with a relatively low velocity dispersion, σ ~ 5–6 km/s. Under these assumptions we find a NS–BH merger rate
with the two extremes corresponding to different metallicities. We find a remarkably well agreement with very recent results based on a sample of ~140 Monte Carlo simulations of GCs (ref. ^{37}). Regarding galactic nuclei, the mass and halfmass radius of the galactic NC (ref. ^{38}) are M_{GC} = 2.2 × 10^{7} M_{☉} and R_{GC} ~ 5 pc, respectively, thus corresponding to σ = 40–60 km/s. Under these assumptions, the merger rate for NCs in Milky Way analogs is
Our estimates rely upon the assumption that all Milky Waylike galaxies harbor an NC, thus they represent an upper limit to the actual merger rate. Note that the merger rates for NCs and GCs are comparable for configuration BHSTNS, thus suggesting that NCs might account for 10–20% of the total population of dynamical NS–BH mergers. Figure 4 shows the variation of Γ_{c} as a function of the cluster mass and halfmass radius. Our results are superimposed to the sample of observed GCs (ref. ^{29}) and NCs (ref. ^{30}). Only the heaviest and more compact NCs can sustain at least 1 event per Gyr. Table 1 summarizes all the models investigated, highlighting the number of exchanges—an exchange marks the formation of a NS–BH—, the number of mergers, and the number of possible EM counterpart out of 10,000 simulations.
We stress that none of the observed clusters in the sample exhibit any evidence of a central massive BH (MBH), neither supermassive—for NCs—nor of intermediatemass—for GCs.
Inside the socalled influence radius, R_{inf}, it is possible to show that the relaxation time for MBH with masses in the range 10^{4}–10^{9} M_{☉} is similar to t_{rel} of clusters with masses in the same mass range, thus NS–BH formation could proceed similarly to NCs. However, deep into the influence radius, where the mass budget is dominated by the MBH itself and the velocity dispersion scales with R_{inf}^{−1/2}, the relaxation time will increase as R_{inf}^{3δ/2}, being δ > 0 a factor that depends on the matter distribution around the MBH. For δ = 1, this implies that the relaxation time inside 0.1 R_{inf} exceeds a Hubble time if M_{MBH} > 10^{6} M_{☉}, thus indicating that the NS–BH formation channel explored here could be strongly suppressed in heavy galactic nuclei. The late evolution of a NS–BH binary formed around an MBH will depend on a number of processes. First, due to mass segregation, the binary will migrate inward, passing through regions at increasing density and velocity dispersion. This corresponds to a reduction of the hardbinary separation, meaning a larger probability for the binary to be disrupted if its hardening rate is not sufficiently large. Second, the increasing gravitational torque associated with the MBH can tidally rip apart the binary. Third, if the binary survive to both energetic scatterings and tidal torques, the reduced distance to the MBH could onset Kozai–Lidov oscillations^{39,40}, which can excite the binary eccentricity up to unity potentially shortening its lifetime. Quantifying these effects for supermassive black holes (SMBHs) is challenging, owing to the fact that the physics regulating star formation and dynamics around an SMBH is still not fully understood. For intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) in star clusters, this is even more difficult, owing to the lack of conclusive evidence of their existence and of a wellconstrained formation scenario. For instance, recent numerical models suggest that IMBHs forming out of a sequence of stellar collisions are associated with clusters retaining only one or two BHs after the IMBH growth, thus limiting the probability for the NS–BH dynamical channel presented here to take place.
Besides the formation of NS–BH mergers, we find in the case of configuration BHSTNS that the NS flyby can push the stellar companion on an orbit passing sufficiently close to the BH to trigger the stellar disruption and associated tidal disruption event (TDE). The probability for this to happen increases at increasing the velocity dispersion, being ~1% for metalpoor and 1.5% for metalrich clusters with σ = 5 km/s. The scattering rate for these events is larger for metalpoor systems, as here the BH mass is larger, resulting in a larger cross section and, thus, in a larger scattering rate. For values typical of Milky Way GCs, the resulting TDE rate is Γ_{TDE} ~ (2.4–4.2) × 10^{−9} yr^{−1}, compatible with the value expected for TDEs triggered by BH binaries^{41,42}. The 90% of disrupted stars have a mass < 0.5 M_{☉}, thus possibly representing white dwarfs or lowmass main sequence stars.
Identifying dynamical NS–BH mergers with GW emission
According to the forefront of binary stellar evolution recipes^{18}, BH in isolated NS–BH mergers are expected to feature masses strongly peaked in the range 6.5–8.5 M_{☉} and NS masses broadly distributed between 1.4–2 M_{☉}, thus corresponding to chirp masses < 4 M_{☉}. Figure 5a shows the chirp mass, \({\cal{M}}_{{\mathrm{chirp}}}\), distribution for all our highvelocity dispersion dynamical models. We refer to models with σ = 100 km/s to discuss the general properties of dynamical mergers. This choice is motivated by the larger number of mergers for these models, which allow a more robust statistical investigation of merger mass distribution. Nonetheless, the overall distribution shown in the following does not differ from those at smaller σ values, although the latter are affected by a lower statistics. Mergers forming dynamically in our simulations show a nonnegligible probability to have \({\cal{M}}_{{\mathrm{chirp}}}\) larger compared to the isolated channel. In configuration NSSTBH, up to 52%(32%) of mergers in metalpoor(rich) clusters have a chirp mass above this threshold. The percentage decreases for BHSTNS configuration but is still not negligible, being 14–17%, with the lower limit corresponding to metalrich systems. A chirp mass above 4 M_{☉}, thus represents the first clear distinctive mark of an NS–BH merger with a dynamical origin.
By definition, a large chirp mass indicates a large binary mass and, in the case of NS–BH binaries, this can indicate a large BH mass. In fact, the second characteristic mark of dynamical mergers is apparent in the BH mass distribution shown in Fig. 5b. For clarity’s sake, we overlay to our predictions the same quantity inferred for isolated NS–BH mergers^{18}. In metalpoor clusters, we find that >50% of NSSTBH and 17% of BHSTNS simulations lead to a merger involving a BH with mass m_{BH} > 20 M_{☉}. The percentage drops to 16 and 4%, respectively, for metalrich clusters, due to the lower maximum BH mass set by stellar evolution for metal abundances close to solar (see the Methods section for further details about the initial BH mass spectrum). However, we note that in comparison to isolated mergers, which predicts a narrow peak at m_{BH} ~ 7 M_{☉}, dynamical mergers show a broad distribution even in the mass range 10–20 M_{☉}, thus suggesting that the dynamical channel could dominate over isolated binaries already in this BH mass range. A BH mass above 10 M_{☉}, thus represents the second distinctive mark of a dynamical origin for NS–BH mergers.
EM counterparts
One of the most interesting outcomes of a NS–BH merger is the possible development of an EM counterpart. This is associated with an accretion disc formed from NS debris during the merging phases. The disc can form only if the BH tidal field torns apart the NS before it enters the BH event horizon, a condition fulfilled if the NS tidal radius
exceeds the BH’s ISCO (ref. ^{39})
where Z_{1,2} are functions of the BH adimensionless spin parameter χ = a_{BH}/m_{BH}. Therefore, the merger will not feature associated EM counterpart if R_{tid}/R_{ISCO} < 1. Note that the opposite does not represent a conditio sinequanon for the development and detectability of an EM signal, as in the case R_{tid}/R_{ISCO} > 1, this depends on the geometry of the merger with respect to the observer and other potential observational biases. Figure 6 shows how the R_{tid}/R_{ISCO} ratio varies at varying m_{BH}, assuming a NS radius^{3} R_{NS} = 12 km and mass m_{NS} = 1–3 M_{☉}, and different χ values.
For mildly rotating BHs (χ ~ 0.5), mergers meet the condition to enable EM emission only if the BH has a mass m_{BH} < 3.8 M_{☉}. In this case, neither the isolated channel nor the dynamical are expected to be prone to EM emission, being the mass of merging BHs larger than this threshold. For spin values similar to those inferred from LIGO observations^{1} (χ ~ 0.7), the threshold BH mass shifts to 5.2 M_{☉}. In this case, we find 15 mergers out of 854 merger candidates, regardless of the configuration, with mass below this threshold, thus the probability to develop an EM counterpart is limited to <1.8%.
For highly spinning BHs (χ ~ 0.9), instead, the BH mass threshold is 9.2 M_{☉}. In this case, the vast majority of mergers in the isolated channel, especially for metalpoor environments, will fall in the region where EM counterpart is allowed, whereas dynamical mergers have a probability of 53.4% to fall outside this threshold, thus implying the impossibility for an EM counterpart to develop. Thus, the absence of a clear EM counterpart with a highspin BH represents the third clear mark of a dynamical origin.
Eccentricity distribution and prospect for multiband GW observations
Looking at the eccentricity distribution prior to the scattering and after, and restricting the analysis to the cases that eventually lead to a merger, we find that at formation dynamical mergers are characterized by an extremely narrow eccentricity distribution peaked around unity. To explore whether some residual eccentricity is preserved when the merger enters the frequency bands of interest for GW detection, we calculate the evolution of the GW characteristic strain as a function of the frequency for all mergers, assuming that they are located in the local Universe, at a luminosity distance D_{L} = 230 Mpc (redshift = 0.05). Note that this is compatible with the luminosity distance inferred for the two NS–BH merger candidates reported in the GRACEDB. Figure 7a shows the eccentricity distribution as binaries cross the 10^{−3}, 10^{−2}, 10^{−1}, 10^{0}, and 10^{1} Hz frequency bands. Note that a large fraction of binaries have e > 0.1 in mHz, i.e., in the observation band of spacebased detectors like LISA, but none of them have e > 0.1 when crossing the 1 Hz frequency threshold. Nonetheless, dynamical mergers appear to be potential multiband GW sources in the 0.01–1 Hz frequency range. Figure 7b shows the characteristic strain of mergers with a total merger time shorter than 10^{5} yr in all our models. We overlap to the simulated sources the sensitivity curve—in terms of characteristic strain—for lowfrequency GW detectors (LISA, DOs^{5}, ALIA^{40,41}, and DECIGO^{42}) and highfrequency detectors (LIGO, KAGRA, and the Einstein Telescope). Decihertz observatories would constitute precious instruments to follow the evolution of these sources during the inspiral phase down to the merger. In the same plot, we show an example for the signal of a merger taking place within the Andromeda galaxy, located at a distance of ~779 kpc, or the Virgo galaxy cluster (~20 Mpc). Mergers occurring at distances between Andromeda and the Virgo cluster could spend enough time in the LISA band to be detected several years prior to the merger.
Discussion
We modeled the dynamical formation of NS–BH mergers in massive clusters, exploring the phase space in terms of cluster velocity dispersion and metallicity, and assuming different configurations. We infer an optimistic merger rate of Γ_{GC} = 0.1 yr^{−1} Gpc^{−3} for GCs and Γ_{NC} = 0.01 yr^{−1} Gpc^{−3} for NCs, much lower than the rate inferred after the first two LIGO observational campaigns^{1} (<610 yr^{−1} Gpc^{−3}). This might indicate that dynamical mergers bring a little contribute to the overall population of NS–BH mergers. Nonetheless, our models suggest that dynamical mergers can exhibit distinctive marks potentially useful to interpret GW observations. While the isolated channel predict mergers with BH masses strongly peaked ~7 M_{☉}, and chirp masses <4 M_{☉}, a nonnegligible percentage of dynamical mergers could be characterized by BH masses above 20 M_{☉} and chirp masses above 4 M_{☉}. This difference has important implications for the development of an EM counterpart. For highly spinning BHs (spin χ = 0.9), the isolated channel suggests that all mergers have the possibility to produce coincident EM + GW emission. Conversely, in the dynamical channel up to 50% mergers have BH masses > 10 M_{SUN}, sufficiently large to avoid the NS disruption outside the BH ISCO. We conclude that a dynamical merger might be uniquely identified if it fulfills simultaneously the requirements that: (i) the chirp mass exceeds 4 M_{☉}, (ii) the BH mass exceeds 20 M_{☉}, and (iii) an EM is absent if the BH spin exceeds 0.9. Dynamical NS–BH mergers appear to be promising multiband sources that might be observable with future decihertz detectors. Exceptional cases could be observed even with LISA, provided that the merger occurred at distances ~0.7–20 Mpc, like in Andromeda or in the Virgo Galaxy cluster.
Methods
Comparing observations and numerical models
To compare our models with observations, we exploit the catalog of Milky Way GC (ref. ^{29}), which provides, among other quantities, the distribution of velocity dispersion (σ), halfmass radius (R_{GC}), and relaxation time (t_{rel}), as shown in Fig. 8. Typical values for galactic GCs are, in general, σ ~ 4–6 km/s, R_{GC} ~ 1–5 pc, and t_{rel} ~ 1 Gyr.
As shown in Fig. 9, the GC mass, halfmass radius, and velocity dispersion are connected by a tight relation in the form
Using a least square fit we find α_{b} = 1.14 ± 0.03, with an associated ratio between the χ^{2} and the number of degrees of freedom χ^{2}/NDF = 0.062.
We use Eq. (9) to convert the velocity dispersion, which is an input parameter in our Nbody simulations, into GC mass and halfmass radius. We use the same strategy to compare our results with a sample of 228 NCs observed in the local Universe^{30}, exploiting published mass and halfmass radius to calculate the velocity dispersion and halfmass relaxation time (Fig. 8).
Setup of the Nbody simulations and numerical approach
The direct Nbody simulations presented in this work have been performed exploiting the ARCHAIN code^{27,43,44}, which features a treatment for close encounters called algorithmic regularization^{43} and includes General Relativity effects via postNewtonian formalism^{27} up to order 2.5. The choice of modeling a compact object paired with a stellar companion is twofold. On the one hand, stars constitute 90% of the total stellar population in a star cluster, making probable for them to be captured by a heavier object. On the other hand, since stars are lighter than compact objects it is energetically convenient for a binary to exchange components and increase its binding energy. Heavy compact binaries in star clusters can indeed form via a sequence of such interactions^{45,46}, which indeed can contribute to the formation of NS–BH in star clusters^{19}. To initialize the BH and NS masses, we sample the zeroage main sequence mass of the three components assuming a powerlaw mass function^{47}, namely f(m_{*}) ∝ m_{*}^{−2.3}. We calculate the remnant masses taking advantage of the SSE tool^{48} for NSs and stateoftheart mass spectra^{26} for BHs. The latter are used because stellar evolution recipes for massive stars implemented in SSE are outdated. We show the BH mass spectrum adopted in Fig. 10a. Note that at low metallicities, the mass of the BHs extends to up to 60 M_{☉}, while being much smaller for metalrich progenitors. This is at the basis of the differences between the results obtained for different configurations with different metallicity values.
We note that a smoother mass function would lead to a larger population of MBHs. This can lead to an increase of the probability for BHs in NS–BH mergers to have a mass larger than the value typical for isolated binaries (~7 M_{☉}). This, in turn, would increase the amount of dynamical mergers that might be clearly distinguishable from the isolated ones.
We assume that the threebody interaction is hyperbolic and in the regime of strong deflection, namely the outer angle between the incoming and outcoming direction of the scattering object is >90 degrees, and the maximum pericentral distance between the binary and the third object equals twice the binary semimajor axis. We restrict our analysis to strong scatterings, as these are the only capable to trigger an exchange between one of the binary components and the third object. To set the maximum semimajor axis a, we follow recent numerical results showing that this quantity divided by the binary reduced mass μ is proportional to the ratio between the host cluster halfmass radius and total mass^{49}, namely a/μ = kR_{GC}/M_{GC}. The scaling constant k = 1/54 claimed in literature is typical of dynamically processed binaries, i.e., that underwent several dynamical encounters, while here we focus on binaries not fully dynamically processed. To mimic this assumption we set k = 10, and we calculate the R_{GC}/M_{GC} ratio through σ via Eq. (9). If a calculated this way is larger than the distance below which the star gets torn apart by tidal torques exerted by the companion, we set as maximum value allowed the hardbinary separation a_{h}. The minimum binary separation is set as the maximum between 100 times the star’s Roche lobe or 1000 times the ISCO of the compact object in the binary. This avoids the possibility that the star plunges inside the BH or is immediately disrupted before the scattering takes place. We initialize our scattering experiments basing our assumptions on previously published works focused on Monte Carlo modeling of GCs. To check the consistency of our assumptions, we compare the distribution of the binary semimajor axis normalized to the hardbinary separation in our models with σ = 5 km/s and MOCCA simulations, as shown in Fig. 10b, c. This quantity seems well suited to compare the two approaches, as it contains information about binaries orbital properties, via the semimajor axis and the component masses, and their hosting environment via σ. We find that, in general, the adopted distribution does not deviate dramatically from MOCCA results, thus providing an acceptable compromise that allows us to expand the study beyond the capability of MOCCA models.
The initial binary eccentricity is sampled from a thermal distribution. Initial velocities of the binary and the single object are taken assuming a Maxwellian distribution of the velocities characterized by the star cluster velocity dispersion σ. We assume σ = 5, 15, 20, 35, 50, and 100 km/s, and two values for the stellar metallicity, either Z = 2 × 10^{−4}, typical of old GCs, or solar values (Z = 0.02). As summarized in Table 1, our models can be divided into two main set, depending on the scattering configuration, each set is divided into two subsets, depending on the metallicity, and each subset is divided into six simulations sample depending on σ. Thus, we gather a total of 24 simulation samples each consisting of 10,000 simulations.
Calculating the scattering rate for Nbody models
The interaction rate can be written as dR/dt = nσΣ, where n is the density of scattering particles, σ is the velocity dispersion, and Σ is the binary cross section
For each simulation set, we calculate Σ by using the median value of a, e, m_{1}, m_{2}, and m_{3}, calculated from the assumed initial distribution. The number density n of scattering particles depends critically on the amount of NSs and BHs left in the cluster. For BHs, we exploit our recent studies on BH subsystems in GCs (refs. ^{22,23}). Using MOCCA models, we find that the typical density of the BH ensemble is comparable to the cluster density, n_{BH} ≡ n ≈ M_{GC}/(m_{*} R_{GC}^{3}). For NSs, instead, we consider the fact that segregation is mostly prevented by the BHs present in the cluster, whereas NStototal mass ratio for typical clusters is of the order of 0.01, a limit imposed by the standard initial mass function. Thus, we assume n_{NS} ≡ 0.01n as an upper limit to the actual NS number density. Under these assumptions, we derive an optimistic estimate of the scattering rate dR/dt that, for σ = 5 km/s, results into:
Note that these estimates fall in the range of values derived from selfconsistent MOCCA models, for which we find 6.3 Gyr^{−1} and 254 Gyr^{−1}, respectively.
Data availability
The data sets generated during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. The updated version of the ARCHAIN code used to carry out the Nbody simulations is available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Change history
17 February 2021
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s4200502003342
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Acknowledgements
The author is grateful to Mirek Giersz, Abbas Askar, and Arkadiusz Hypki for providing access to the MOCCA database and for their invaluable help in managing the data. The author acknowledges financial support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and the Federal Ministry for Education and Research in the framework of the research project “The evolution of black holes from stellar to galactic scales”. The author acknowledges support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation)—ProjectID 138713538—SFB 881 (“The Milky Way System”), and the COST Action CA16104 “GWVerse”. The author acknowledge the use of the Kepler supercomputer at the Astronomisches Rechen Institut of the Heidelberg University, funded by Volkswagen Foundation through the project GRACE 2: “Scientific simulations using programmable hardware” (VW grants I84678/84680), and the bwForCluster of the BadenWürttembergʼs High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities, which is supported by the state of BadenWürttemberg through bwHPC and the German Research Foundation (DFG) through grant INST 35/11341 FUGG.
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The author had the idea of studying the channel investigated here, he carried out the analysis on the MOCCA database and ran the Nbody simulations, performing the analysis of the results. The author wrote the text.
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Arca Sedda, M. Dissecting the properties of neutron star–black hole mergers originating in dense star clusters. Commun Phys 3, 43 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s420050200310x
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s420050200310x
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