Abstract
Nonlinear optical gates are usually considered as fundamental building blocks for universal optical computation. However, the performance is severely limited by small optical nonlinearity, thereby bounding their operation speed, consumption energy, and device size. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate linear optical logic operations with ~3 μmlong Si wire “Ψ” gates consist of 3 × 1 optical combiners including auxiliary bias port, which maximizes the binary contrast of the output in telecom wavelength. We have demonstrated 20 Gbps Boolean “AND” operation with experimentally measured small signal loss (1.6 dB experimentally). A single Ψ gate can perform representative Boolean operations by changing the bias power and relative phases. We have also demonstrated wavelengthindependent operation by seven wavelengths, which leads to wavelengthdivision multiplexed parallel computation. This ultrashort, highlyintegrable, lowloss, and energyefficient optical logic gates pave the way for ultralow latency optical pattern matching, recognition, and conversion.
Introduction
Driven by the miniaturization of the transistor gate and the development of multicore architecture, the performance of complementary metaloxidesemiconductor (CMOS) computers is continuously improving as expressed by Moore’s law^{1}. However, recent progress has been dominated by throughput improvement, and the computation latency is already saturated even with the insertion of repeaters^{2}. This is because the miniaturization increases the wiring resistance, thereby increasing resistancecapacitance (RC) delay. This will hamper realtime information processing combined with a wideband data bus, which will be needed in the cyberphysicalsystem society of the future.
Discussions are underway suggesting that this limitation could be circumvented by introducing optics into a computer. Since light propagation is not affected by RC delay, this scheme may have the potential to greatly reduce computation delay if we employ nanophotonic circuits^{3,4,5}. Most previous optical computation schemes rely on optical nonlinearity or an electrooptic effect that generally makes optical gates longer (a few 100 μm to a few mm) and energyconsuming^{6}. In other words, latency is still limited by the intrinsic smallness of optical nonlinear effects.
Recently, there have been several proposals and some experimental demonstrations of optical logic operations employing linear optical components^{7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17}. For example, a simple beam splitter can perform various types of approximate Boolean logic gates as a result of optical interference. Since these gates do not rely on optical nonlinearity, several advantages can be expected namely they can be extremely short, thereby leading to an ultrashort computation delay. Moreover, wavelengthdivision multiplexed (WDM) parallel computation would be possible. Thus, they are potentially promising for ultrafast and wideband optical computations. However, the demonstrated performance has been very limited because of a poor binary contrast, large loss, and a large number of unwanted reflections, arising from the difficulty involved in accurately controlling the interference while maintaining high transmittance in optical circuits. Considering the recent great progress made on Si photonic integrated circuits, especially as regards interferometers with an unprecedentedly large scale^{18,19,20,21,22,23}, it would be important for such gates to be implemented on Si photonics technology.
In this paper, we propose and demonstrate highbit rate optical Boolean logic operations (AND, NOR, and XNOR) realized by ultrashort (~3 μm long) Si wirebased linear “Ψ“ gates implemented on a lowloss Si photonics circuit. Our gates consist of simple 3 × 1 combiners that have three inputs and a single output. This design greatly improves the binary contrast from the theoretical limit for conventional beam splitters (1:4) to 1:9. Although a similar preliminary design has been used for plasmonic gates^{12}, we have deliberately designed Ψ gates for Boolean operations with high transmittance, very small reflection, ideal splitting ratios, and superior wavelength insensitivity. The obtained performance is close to the theoretical limit for 3 × 1 combiners. Furthermore, we have fabricated these Ψ gates with an accurate nanofabrication process, and have succeeded in experimentally demonstrating AND, XNOR, and NOR operations using a single device with the predicted binary contrast. Because of the high transmittance and high stability, we have succeeded in demonstrating logic operations with a high bit rate (up to 20 Gbps, limited by our setup), which is already faster than that of CMOS circuits. Finally, we verify the capability for wavelength multiplexed parallel computations, which would realize the full potential of optical computation. Since the achieved Ψ gates are very short and easily integrated/combined with Si photonic circuits, our result reveals the potential of linear optic circuits for ultralowlatency computation.
Results
Design of Ψ gates
Figure 1 summarizes the principle of our logic gates. Here a Ψ gate consisting of three inputs and one output (rigorously it is a part of a 3 × 3 interferometer with extra two hidden radiation ports) is assumed, as shown in Fig. 1a. As regards the inputs, it has two different intensitymodulated bit signals (“A” and “B”) and one continuouswave bias light with a fixed power and a fixed relative phase to signals (“Bias”). All the inputs have fixed relative phase relationships with an identical wavelength λ. Here we consider a special case for the 3 × 3 interferometer where the operation result is generated at one of the exit ports (“Output” port) when coherent beams are injected to three input ports. Assuming that the optical output signal power P_{out} is given as follows;
where P_{A} and P_{B} are the optical bit signal powers, which vary between P_{1} (“1” state) and P_{0} (“0” state). P_{Bias} is the input power for the Bias port, and T_{X} is the transmittance from each input port X to the output port (satisfying T_{A} + T_{B} + T_{Bias} ≤ 1), and ΔΦ and ΔΦ_{Bias} are the relative output phases of B and Bias to the output of A, respectively. In fact, this situation is possible with a cascaded network of symmetric and asymmetric (a = T_{Bias}/2T_{A}) ideal beam splitters are shown in Fig. 1b, but here we will clarify that this function can be realized by a very simple Ψ gate implemented on Si photonic waveguides, which significantly simplifies and reduces the total size of the interferometer in comparison with the one in Fig. 1b.
Here, we explain how it works. Figure 1c summarizes the linear map of the Ψ gate’s output with different input conditions for Bias. Rigorously, the map for a 3 × 3 interferometer should be plotted in 3D space, but here we contract it into the 2D one. The horizontal axis represents the output port, and the vertical axis represents two other ports which we do not observe. When there is no Bias input (w/o Bias), the gate is a simple beam splitter which generates P_{out}(1, 1) = 2P_{1}, P_{out}(1, 0) = P_{out}(0, 1) = 0.5P_{1}, and P_{out}(0, 0) = 0 at the output port. Then, the intensity ratio is maximally 4 as regards the AND operation. Thus, the simple beam splitter functions as quasiAND gate with a binary contrast BC of 6 dB. Once there is a nonzero Bias input (w/ Bias) with outofphase (ΔΦ_{Bias} = π), the linear map is shifted as shown in Fig. 1c, which corresponds to Affine transformation by Bias input. Owing to this transformation, the BC of an AND operation is improved from 6 to 9.5 dB by applying P_{Bias}/P_{1} = T_{A}/4T_{Bias}. This improvement of BC is very important because the computation error rate for this scheme will be determined by the finite BC. Table 1 summarizes all the parameters for all logic operations more than AND. The Ψ gate also works as XNOR with an infinite BC or NOR with a BC of ~9.5 dB when P_{Bias}/P_{1} = T_{A}/T_{Bias} or P_{Bias}/P_{1} = 9T_{A}/4T_{Bias}, respectively. NAND operation is also possible by satisfying P_{Bias}/P_{1} = T_{A}/T_{Bias}, ΔΦ = 2π/3, ΔΦ_{Bias} = −2π/3^{12}. Thus, this single gate can perform all the representative Boolean operations if we adjust ΔΦ, ΔΦ_{Bias}, and P_{Bias}. It is particularly noteworthy that the operations among AND, XNOR, and NOR can be switched simply by changing P_{Bias}.
Various platforms (e.g., plasmonics^{9,10,11,12}, photonic crystals^{13,14}, and metasurfaces^{15,16,17}, etc.) are now available for forming Ψ gates. Then, which platform is the best? Here, we mainly consider two performance aspects as the criteria; one is the gate length L, and the other is the signal loss SL = 10 log_{10} (P_{out}/P_{1}) (with P_{Bias} applied for maximizing BC). L can be greatly shortened by utilizing plasmonic waveguides. However, they cannot satisfy a low SL due to the large propagation loss (>0.5 dB/μm). A preliminary study of 3 × 1 plasmonic logic gates were reported^{12}, but these gates suffered from huge reflection and transmission loss, thereby hindering to demonstrating the superiority of linear gates, such as highspeed operations or wavelength insensitivity. In the present study, we have chosen Si photonics as a platform to satisfy the need for both a shorter L and a lower SL. Over the past decade, Si photonics has matured well, and the technology is now capable of realizing larger scale matrix switches based on interferometers^{21,22,23}. In addition, the optical loss of Sibased waveguides and components has been remarkably reduced thanks to improvements in design and fabrication accuracy^{24,25}. Hence, we intend to maximally enjoy these merits of Si photonics to miniaturize Ψ gates with as small as loss. Figure 2a, b shows schematics of the proposed Si wire Ψ gate with the Si layer thickness H. The structure simply consists of a single 3 μm long Y combiner with one tapered waveguide for the Bias input. Figure 2c shows an example of the simulated transmittances T_{A}, T_{Bias}, and the signal reflectance R (from port A to A) obtained with the 3D finite element method (COMSOL) for 1.48–1.62 μm. Despite the simple design, the transmittances is surprisingly flat and large (T_{A} = T_{B} ~ 0.38–0.39, T_{Bias} ~ 0.20–0.22). R is still low (up to ~0.04 for the shorter λ). This means most of the residual component conveniently couples to the hidden radiation ports without reflection. This is exactly what we planned to realize at the beginning of this part in Eq. (1). Figure 2d shows the simulated AND operation for the same device as in Fig. 2c. The simulated output intensity shows that the predicted BC ~9.5 dB has been obtained with realistic structural parameters and proper input conditions. A low SL of ~0.68 dB is obtained with this maximum BC at 1.54 μm. According to Fig. 2c, an SL of 0.51–0.79 dB would be obtained for this design in the 1.48–1.62 μm range. If we modify the structural parameters, SL ≤ 0 dB (effectively lossless) is also possible (Supplementary Figs. 1 and 2, Supplementary Note 1). In plasmonic systems^{10}, a realistic figure of merit like SL has not been examined probably due to its huge propagation loss (according to our simulation, the propagation loss is estimated ~1.4 dB/μm for the metalinsulatormetal (MIM) structure described in ref. ^{10}). Even with assuming an ideal lossless metal, T_{A} cannot be high due to the large R (according to our simulation, R ~ 0.3 (T_{A} < 0.25) for a 50nm wide metalinsulatormetal waveguides based Ψ gate). Additionally, the required P_{Bias} for our device is less than a half of P_{1}. Thus, Siwire Ψ gates are ideal and highly feasible for lowlatency linear logic operations. For the detail of designing Ψ gates, please refer Supplementary Figs. 3–5 and Supplementary Note 2.
AND logic operations
Figure 3a shows the concise experimental setup for optical logic operations. 10–20 Gbps intensitymodulated optical bit patterns were generated with a desktop optical transmitter. The bit patterns were separated into two signals A and B through a 3 dB coupler, then B was delayed by a fiber delay line to shift the bit sequence. A, B and Bias were input simultaneously after their intensity and phase had been tuned by variable optical attenuators and driving digital PID regulators (See “Methods” for the experimental procedure).
Figure 3b, c summarize the experimental average time waveforms comparing 10 Gbps AND operations without and with Bias. Apparently, we observed a much clearer AND operation with BC ~9.3 dB when we applied a P_{Bias}/P_{1} of ~0.62. The transmittances are T_{A} ~ T_{B} ~ 0.32, T_{Bias} ~ 0.20 at λ ~ 1.55 μm, which are very close to the predicted values. The optimum bias power value given by P_{Bias}/P_{1} = T_{A}/4T_{Bias} is estimated to be ~0.39, which is ~63% of the experimental value. This is because the experimental optical input bit patterns are not ideal and have a finite extinction ratio ER (defined as 10 log_{10}(P_{1}/P_{0}), and limited by the used optical transmitter) in the 13–23 dB range. For example, when ER ~20 dB, the analytical P_{Bias}/P_{1} can be calculated to be ~0.68 and is pretty close to the above experimental value (please see the plotted curve for AND operation in Supplementary Fig. 1a). This also implies that we can obtain a maximized BC of ~9.5 dB by applying a properly calibrated P_{Bias}/P_{1} even with ERdegraded signals (Supplementary Fig. 2 and Supplementary Note 1). This feature can be emphasized as one of the noteworthy functionalities of Ψ gates. From Fig. 3c, we can see that the output waveform follows the rise and fall of the input signals instantaneously, indicating that the response time of the device appears to be limited only by the input signals and thus the intrinsic speed would be much faster. Figure 3d, e shows the eye pattern without and with Bias measured with 20 Gbps nonreturntozero pseudorandom bit pattern inputs (2^{9} − 1). The output against inputs of (0, 0), (1, 0), and (0, 1) are merged into a single level after applying Bias, which directly visualizes the improvement of BC in the bit stream. As shown in Fig. 3f, g, very similar eye patterns are reproduced in simulations based on experimental parameters (Supplementary Fig. 6). From the simulated eye patterns, the Q factors (bit error rates: BER) without and with Bias are calculated as ~4.7 (~10^{−6}) and ~17 (~10^{−66}), respectively. The simulated Q is mainly limited by the intensities and phase noises of the input signals (according to the measurement of the noise spectral density for our electric signal generator (MP1800A, Anritsu), −140 dBm/Hz was employed for simulations) (Supplementary Fig. 6 and Supplementary Note 3). Therefore, the computation error rate can be greatly improved by applying Bias.
Switching to the other operations with a single device
To experimentally prove the reconfigurability of a single Ψ gate as explained in Fig. 1c and Table 1, Fig. 4a, b shows the experimental XNOR and NOR operations simply by changing P_{Bias}. Both operations have also been clearly demonstrated with using the same device shown in Fig. 3. The XNOR and NOR operations exhibit BC values of >10 dB and ~9 dB with P_{Bias}/P_{1} ~1.6 and 3.1, respectively. These values roughly correspond to the analytical P_{Bias}/P_{1} (1.6–1.9 for XNOR, 3.5–3.7 for NOR) considering the experimental finite ER (Supplementary Fig. 1 and Supplementary Note 1). The response speed in Fig. 4c, d is again limited by the inputs. It would be worth to note that the NOR operation is more important because it works as a universal gate set for all logic operations.
Wavelength insensitive operation
Figure 5 shows the λ dependence of the same device. Figure 5a shows experimental and simulated spectra for T_{A}, T_{Bias}, and R. After subtracting the fiberchip coupling loss, we experimentally obtained T_{A} ~ T_{B} = 0.25–0.35, and T_{Bias} = 0.11–0.32 for the 1480–1620 nm range. Using the experimental T_{A} and T_{Bias}, we estimated P_{Bias}_{/}/P_{1} and SL for AND operation as shown in Fig. 5b. Even with the assumption of ER = 20 dB, P_{Bias}_{/}/P_{1} < 1 is achieved over the entire measurement range. The SL is degraded compared with the simulation result shown in Fig. 2 because the experimental design has a smaller T_{A}. But, an SL of a few dB is still much smaller than in any other previous reports^{8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15}. Figure 5c overlaps time waveforms of the AND operations of seven different λ (1535, 1540, 1545, 1550, 1555, 1560, and 1565 nm) denoted by the dots in Fig. 5b. By calibrating P_{Bias}/P_{1} for each λ, a similar BC was achieved for all the tested λ. In this demonstration, the input signal bit sequences and the operations are the same for all λ. It should be noted, however, we can perform simultaneously different operations for each wavelength channel by varying the input conditions (that is, totally independent parallel logic operations is possible up to the number of the input channel with a single gate). This is very unique and ultimate benefit of our linear gates compared to nonlinear gates.
Discussion
The power consumption of a Ψ gate is simply given by the total optical input power including Bias. If the experimental net loss of ~5 dB (for AND operation at λ = 1550 nm, Supplementary Note 1) and a typical minimum input power of commercial photodetectors of −20 dBm are assumed, the total optical input power becomes −15 dBm. Therefore, the energy consumption per bit for the demonstrated bit rate (20 Gbps) is ~1.7 fJ/bit. As it can be seen in the spectral response shown in Fig. 5a, ultrashort (or ultrathin) linear gates are essentially ultrabroadband^{15,26}. We have also tried 40 Gbps operation (Supplementary Fig. 7 and Supplementary Note 4), and we found that the operation bit rate is basically limited by the rise and fall time of the optical input signals. The power consumption can be reduced down to sub fJ/bit order by integrating nanophotodetectors with much smaller capacitance^{27} or by employing much higher bit rate >100 Gbps.
The phase sensitivity of performances is actually not very severe. For instance, the total phase error δϕ_{tot} (=\(\sqrt {\delta \phi ^2 + \delta \phi _{\mathrm{Bias}}^2}\)Z, δϕ: the relative phase error between A and B, δϕ_{Bias}: the relative phase error between A and Bias) can be up to ~ ± 0.18 rad (~ ± 6%) to satisfy BC > 9.0 dB, and SL < 1.7 dB with the experimental transmittances (T_{A} = 0.31, T_{Bias} = 0.20).
For future work, the proposed Ψ gates should be applied for optical information processing by cascading many gates. However, we can only cascade AND or NOR gates because the cascade connection of the other gates are not linearly separable. For multiple AND operations while cascading Ψ gates, BC becomes ~4.4 dB, ~2.2 dB, and ~1.1 dB if we increase the number of input as 4bit, 8bit, and 16bit, respectively. We note that the feasibility and the performances (computation latency, error rate, etc.) are not directly determined by the BC, but we should also consider the optical input and the reception intensity, electrical noises, the performances of the onchip OE converter and the electrical threshold operator. If the reception intensity is sufficiently high, it may be feasible to operate 128bit AND circuits. We have initially considered a brief configuration for 128bit AND circuits by cascading the Ψ gates, and estimated ~10 times shorter latency than one of the fastest CMOS AND circuits^{28}. Such a largescale AND circuits are significant to realize ultralowlatency pattern matching applications.
In conclusion, with the aim of realizing ultralow latency optical computation, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated ultrashort, simple, integrable, and lowloss Si wire Ψ linear optical logic gates. The loss is much lower than any other optical gates. This also improves the latency of optoelectrical conversion for same energy consumption. The operation function can be switched among AND, XNOR, and NOR with a single Ψ gate by tuning P_{Bias}. It is also possible for WDM computation to boost the throughput because of the small wavelength dependence. In the near future, more than 1–10 Tbps will be available by cascading Ψ gates for multibit operations. The integrated electrooptic phase shifters should also be much shorter and faster. To demonstrate ultralow latency operation, we must also integrate optoelectrical converters.
As mentioned in the introduction, we need to satisfy strict criteria for optical logic gates applied to universal computation^{29}. However, we repeat that the proposed gate could be designed for lower latency computing with specific applications requiring few optical nonlinear gates. For instance, this gate could be applicable for such devices as pattern recognizers/matchers^{30} by combining them with a lowlatency electrical thresholding device (e.g., sense amplifiers^{31}).
Methods
Fabrication
The sample was fabricated on a silicononinsulator substrate with a 220 nmthick top Si layer. An ebeam resist (ZEP520A, Zeon) was spincoated on the substrate, and the resist pattern was formed after ebeam writing and development. The resist pattern was transferred to the Si layer by using dry etching. After the resist was removed, polymer (SU8 2002, MicroChem) spot size converters^{32} were fabricated for the input/output ports by using 2nd ebeam lithography.
Measurement with optical phase lock loops
Two coherent input signal lights and one invariant light were prepared by splitting the light from the same tunable laser diode source (81600B, Agilent) by using variable optical couplers (Model 905P, Evanescent Optics). Optical bit patterns up to 40 Gbps were generated through an optical transmitter (46120C, SHF) driven by a signal generator (MP1800A, Anritsu) with a MUX system (MP1861A, Anritsu). The intensity of each optical signal was adjusted and balanced with a multichannel variable optical attenuator (VOABSeries, Bola). These optical signals were coupled to the fabricated chip by using a 6 channel lens module with a 50 μm output spacing. To suppress the phase fluctuations caused by mechanical vibration, two channels of a fiber stretcher (PZ1PM1APCE155P, Optiphase) were installed in channels A and B (Bias was set as the phase standard). Both fiber stretchers were controlled by employing a digital laser stabilizer (LaseLock, TEM Messtechnik). After locking the phase relationships, the average time waveforms and eye patterns of the output signal were detected with an optical sampling oscilloscope (N1046A, Keysight) through an erbiumdoped fiber amplifier (PMFA30, Pritel) and a tunable optical band pass filter (CVF220CL, Alnair Labs). By referring to the time average output waveforms displayed in the oscilloscope, we tried to obtain a better BC by manually tuning P_{1}, P_{Bias}, and relative phases by changing the parameters in the PID regulator. More information on the optical phase lock loop and its optical I/O system is available in Supplementary Figs. 8 and 9, and Supplementary Notes 5 and 6. If all modulators and Ψ gates are on a same chip, we do not need to employ this sort of phase lock loops (Supplementary Fig. 10 and Supplementary Note 7 for the preliminary demonstration of integrated linear logic circuits). For the results for other logic operations without Bias, please refer to Supplementary Fig. 11 and Supplementary Note 8.
Data availability
All the experimental and simulated data are available in this paper. For more technical information, we provide the relevant data in the Supplementary Information. Further supporting information could be provided by the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
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Acknowledgements
The authors thank Mr. O. Moriwaki, Dr. T. Tamamura, Dr. E. Kuramochi, and Dr. M. Ono for undertaking the fabrication work. The authors thank Dr. T. Inagaki and Dr. T. Umeki for advice and for lending us the instruments needed for the optical phase lock loop systems. We thank Prof. T. Ishihara, Prof. K. Inoue, Prof. S. Kawakami, Prof. S. Iwamoto, and Prof. Y. Ota for fruitful discussions. The authors thank Dr. S. Sergent, Dr. F. Tian, and Dr. H. Sumikura for daily discussions. This work was supported by Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (JPMJCR15N4), Japan Science and Technology Agency.
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S.K. and M.N. conceived the basic idea for this work. S.K. and M.N. carried out the theoretical analysis. S.K. performed the finite element method simulations needed for the design. S.K. carried out fabrication, measurements, and evaluations. K.N. wrote codes for efficient and stable measurements, and helped to build the setup. K.T. supported the building of the optical phase lock loops. A.S. and M.N. obtained the funding and supervised this work. S.K. wrote the first draft of this paper. All the authors contributed to the revision of this paper and agreed on the final version.
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Kita, S., Nozaki, K., Takata, K. et al. Ultrashort lowloss Ψ gates for linear optical logic on Si photonics platform. Commun Phys 3, 33 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s4200502002982
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s4200502002982
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