Making quantitative sense of electromicrobial production

Abstract

The integration of electrochemical and microbial processes offers a unique opportunity to displace fossil carbon with CO2 and renewable energy as the primary feedstocks for carbon-based chemicals. Yet, it is unclear which strategy for CO2 activation and electron transfer to microbes has the capacity to transform the chemical industry. Here, we systematically survey experimental data for microbial growth on compounds that can be produced electrochemically, either directly or indirectly. We show that only a few strategies can support efficient electromicrobial production, where formate and methanol seem the best electron mediators in terms of energetic efficiency of feedstock bioconversion under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. We further show that direct attachment of microbes to the cathode is highly constrained due to an inherent discrepancy between the rates of the electrochemical and biological processes. Our quantitative perspective provides a data-driven roadmap towards an economically and environmentally viable realization of electromicrobial production.

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Fig. 1: Schematic representation of the three main types of electromicrobial production.
Fig. 2: Microbial growth parameters associated with different feedstocks and assimilation pathways.
Fig. 3: Approximated costs of electro-production of electron carriers as a function of energetic efficiency and current density.
Fig. 4: A two-step catalytic process can replace direct electrochemical production.
Fig. 5: Summarized comparison between different C1 electron carriers.

Data availability

The data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank R. Milo, S. Geiger, A. Gago, A. Flamholz, H. He, D. Holtmann, F. Kensy, E. Noor and A. Satanowski for helpful discussions and critical reading of the manuscript. This work received funding from the Max Planck Society and from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 763911 (Project eForFuel). N.J.C. is supported by The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) through a Rubicon Grant (project 019.163LW.035).

Author information

A.B.-E. conceptualized and supervised the research. N.J.C., C.A.R.C. and A.B.-E. designed and performed the quantitative microbial analysis. D.K. performed the electrolysis cost analysis. N.J.C., C.A.R.C., D.K. and A.B.-E. analysed the data and wrote the paper.

Correspondence to Arren Bar-Even.

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Competing interests

A.B.-E. is cofounder of b.fab, exploring the commercialization of microbial bioproduction using formate as feedstock. The company was not involved in any way in performing or funding this study.

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Supplementary Information

Supplementary Fig. 1, Supplementary Table 1, Supplementary references

Supplementary Data 1

Growth parameters collected from literature and calculated energetic efficiencies and electron consumption rates.

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Claassens, N.J., Cotton, C.A.R., Kopljar, D. et al. Making quantitative sense of electromicrobial production. Nat Catal 2, 437–447 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41929-019-0272-0

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