Atmospheric aerosol particles (also known as particulate matter) are central to the cause of the two greatest threats to human security: air pollution (~5 million premature deaths per year) and climate change (~0.5 million per year). Addressing these threats requires an understanding of particulate matter sources responsible for both extreme air pollution immediately affecting human health and less extreme levels affecting climate over longer timescales. Here, extraordinary levels of air pollution, with submicrometre aerosol (PM1) mass concentration surpassing 300 µg m−3, were observed in a moderately sized European city and are attributed to emissions from residential solid fuel—specifically peat and wood, often promoted as ‘slow-renewable’, ‘low-carbon’ or ‘carbon-neutral’ biomass. Using sophisticated fingerprinting techniques, we find that consumption of peat and wood in up to 12% and 1% of households, respectively, contributed up to 70% of PM1. The results from this approach can better inform emissions reduction policies and help to ensure the most appropriate air pollution sources are targeted. Given the far greater abundance of solid fuels and concomitant emissions required to match the calorific benefit of liquid fuels, even modest increases in the consumption of ‘green’-marketed solid fuels will disproportionally increase the frequency of extreme pollution events.

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This work was funded by the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (AEROSOURCE, 529 2016-CCRP-MS-31; SAPPHIRE, 2013-EH-MS-15), Science Foundation Ireland (MaREI award 14-SP-2740), the European Commission, the National Natural Science Foundation of China 530 (NSFC) under grant no. 91644219, China Scholarship Council (CSC, no. 201506310020) 531 and the Irish Research Council (GOIPG/2015/3051). We also acknowledge Met Éireann for ceilometer and meteorological data.

Author information


  1. School of Physics, Centre for Climate and Air Pollution Studies, Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland

    • Chunshui Lin
    • , Ru-Jin Huang
    • , Darius Ceburnis
    • , Jana Preissler
    • , Colin O’Dowd
    •  & Jurgita Ovadnevaite
  2. Marine and Renewable Energy Ireland, Ryan Institute, National University Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland

    • Chunshui Lin
    • , Darius Ceburnis
    • , Jana Preissler
    • , Colin O’Dowd
    •  & Jurgita Ovadnevaite
  3. State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology and Key Laboratory of Aerosol Chemistry and Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an, China

    • Chunshui Lin
    •  & Ru-Jin Huang
  4. Department of Chemistry and Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland

    • Paul Buckley
    •  & John Wenger
  5. Instituto di Scienze dell’Atmosfera–CNR, Bologna, Italy

    • Matteo Rinaldi
    •  & Maria Christina Facchini


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J.O., D.C., M.R., M.C.F., J.W., R.-J.H. and C.O’D. conceived and designed the experiments; C.L., J.O., D.C. and P.B. performed the experiments; C.L., R.-J.H., J.O., P.B., J.P. and C.O’D. analysed the data; C.L. and C.O’D. wrote the paper with input from all co-authors.

The authors declare no competing interests.

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Correspondence to Ru-Jin Huang or Colin O’Dowd.

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