Abstract
Raman scattering measurements of monolayer WS_{2} are reported as a function of the laser excitation energies from the nearinfrared (1.58 eV) to the deepultraviolet (4.82 eV). In particular, we observed several strong Raman peaks in the range of 700∼850 cm^{−1} with the deepultraviolet laser lights (4.66 eV and 4.82 eV). Using the firstprinciples calculations, these peaks and other weak peaks were appropriately assigned by the double resonance Raman scattering spectra of phonons around the M and K points in the hexagonal Brillouin zone. The relative intensity of the firstorder \({{\boldsymbol{E}}}_{{\bf{2}}{\boldsymbol{g}}}^{{\bf{1}}}\) to A_{1g} peak changes dramatically with the 1.58 eV and 2.33 eV laser excitations, while the comparable relative intensity was observed for other laser energies. The disappearance of the \({{\boldsymbol{E}}}_{{\bf{2}}{\boldsymbol{g}}}^{{\bf{1}}}\) peak with the 1.58 eV laser light comes from the fact that valley polarization of the laser light surpasses the \({{\boldsymbol{E}}}_{{\bf{2}}{\boldsymbol{g}}}^{{\bf{1}}}\) mode since the \({{\boldsymbol{E}}}_{{\bf{2}}{\boldsymbol{g}}}^{{\bf{1}}}\) mode is the helicityexchange Raman mode. On the other hand, the disappearance of the A_{1g} peak with the 2.33 eV laser light might be due to the strain effect on the electronphonon matrix element.
Introduction
Layered transition metal dichalcogenides of hexagonal crystal structure (2HTMDs) have attracted considerable attention in recent years. These materials exhibit distinct properties from their bulk counterparts because of reduced dimensionality and symmetry^{1,2,3,4,5}, and offer unique opportunities for applications such as nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, spintronics, valleytronics, gas sensor, energy storage, and information processing^{6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19}. Among 2HTMDs, monolayer tungsten disulfide (WS_{2}) is special in many respects. It has the largest direct band gap of about 2.1 eV at the K and \(K^{\prime} \) points in the Brillouin zone^{4,5,20}, resulting in the highest quantum efficiency of photoluminescence yield^{4,5,21}. Furthermore, it exhibits sufficiently large exciton binding energy in the range of 0.3 ∼0.7 eV^{20,22,23}, featuring stable A and B exciton absorptions even at room temperature. Additionally, it shows significant spinorbit coupling that induces a large splitting of the valence band of about 0.4 eV^{5,20,24} at the K and \(K^{\prime} \) points, leading to coupled spin and valley physics^{25}. These superior properties make monolayer WS_{2} a very attractive material for use in fieldeffect transistors^{26,27}, photodetectors^{28,29,30}, solar cells^{31}, lightemitting^{21}, biosensing^{32}, and spin valve devices^{33}.
For many of these practical applications, knowledge of the lattice dynamics and electronic band structure of monolayer WS_{2} is important not only to characterize the structure but also to understand the optical and electronic properties of devices. Resonant Raman scattering spectroscopy has been proved to be an effective tool for probing such properties of monolayer WS_{2}^{34,35}, providing critical information about the phononic and electronic excitations in WS_{2} systems. In earlier studies, Berkdemir et al.^{36} examined the resonant Raman scattering spectra of monolayer WS_{2} with 488 nm (∼2.54 eV), 514.5 nm (∼2.41 eV), and 647 nm (∼1.92 eV) laser excitations. Gaur et al.^{37} studied the resonant enhancement of the firstorder and secondorder Raman phonon modes in monolayer WS_{2} with six different laser excitation wavelengths of 457.9 nm (∼2.71 eV), 476.5 nm (∼2.60 eV), 488 nm (∼2.54 eV), 496.5 nm (∼2.50 eV), 501.7 nm (∼2.47 eV), and 514.5 nm (∼2.41 eV). They both^{36,37} found that many secondorder Raman phonon modes appear and an increase in the intensity of the longitudinal acoustic 2 LA(M) mode at 351 cm^{−1} occurs only when a 514.5 nm (∼2.41 eV) laser is resonant to the B exciton. This resonance can be explained in terms of the electronphonon coupling based upon double resonant Raman scattering process. Corro et al.^{38} presented the results of Raman scattering spectra of monolayer WS_{2} using up to 25 laser excitation wavelengths in the visible range. They observed that the resonant excitation profiles of firstorder A_{1g} and \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) and the secondorder 2 LA(M) phonon modes show the intensity enhancements at 2.0, 2.4, and 2.7 eV, corresponding to three exciton absorption energies, revealing strong excitonphonon interactions in monolayer WS_{2}. Very recently, Yang et al.^{39} and Tan et al.^{40} investigated the excitation energy dependence of lowfrequency Raman scattering spectra in fewlayer WS_{2}. Their results showed the quantum interference effects between lowfrequency discrete phonon and exciton continuum under resonant excitation. Moreover, Miranda et al.^{41} explained the experimentally observed different resonant behavior of firstorder \({A^{\prime} }_{1}\) and \(E^{\prime} \) modes of monolayer MoTe_{2} in terms of the quantum interference between electronic transitions at differernt parts in the Brillouin zone.
Despite intense research having been conducted on resonant Raman scattering measurements of monolayer WS_{2} using the visible laser lines, their ultraviolet (especially for deepultraviolet) Raman scattering spectra have not been reported so far. Only our earlier study of the ultraviolet Raman scattering spectrum of monolayer MoS_{2} with the smaller band gap exhibits the rich secondorder phonon structures^{42}. Many high energy absorption peaks for monolayer WS_{2} were observed in the ultraviolet regime, showing much larger intensity than those of the A and B excitons^{5,20}, which is due to the nesting effect at the Λ valley^{43,44} or Van Hove singularity at the M point. More recently, the stable, highlyresponsive, and broadband (from 370 to 1064 nm) photodetection has been discovered in multilayer WS_{2}^{29}. These results show the great potential to use monolayer WS_{2} in the ultraviolet photodetector applications. Therefore, to gain further insight into the resonant Raman scattering spectra of monolayer WS_{2} using the ultraviolet laser lines is crucial for future design of effective ultraviolet photodetector based on this material. In this paper, we report a resonant Raman scattering study of monolayer WS_{2} with increasing laser excitation energies ranging from the nearinfrared 785 nm (∼1.58 eV) to the deepultraviolet 257 nm (∼4.82 eV), and we compare our results with the predictions of firstprinciples calculations. We find that the anomalously strong enhancement of the Raman scattering spectra in the range of 700 ∼850 cm^{−1} as the secondorder phonon modes by the deepultraviolet excitation wavelength 266 nm (∼4.66 eV) and 257 nm (∼4.82 eV). Furthermore, we observe the disappearance of \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) and A_{1g} peaks, respectively, with the 1.58 eV and 2.33 eV laser excitations. We discuss theoretically the origin of this disappearance.
The organization of the paper is as follows. In section II, we describe the technical details of the experiment and theoretical calculations. In section III, we present the experimental data and discuss the origin of the Raman scattering spectra by comparing with the results of firstprinciples calculations. Finally, the paper is summarized in Section IV.
Technical Details
Experiment
Monolayer WS_{2} thin films were grown on the sapphire substrates by chemical vapor deposition^{45}. These thin films were single layer materials verified by atomic force microscopy^{46}. Resonant microRaman scattering measurements were performed at room temperature using two deepultraviolet lasers at λ = 257 and 266 nm, a ultraviolet laser at λ = 354 nm^{47,48}, two visible lasers at λ = 488 and 532 nm, and a nearinfrared laser at λ = 785 nm. The power of all laser lines used was kept below 1.0 mW to avoid possible heating effects. The typical duration time of measuring the Raman scattering spectra was 300 seconds (λ = 257, 266, 354, and 785 nm) and 120 seconds (λ = 488 and 532 nm). A detailed description of the experimental Raman scattering setup is given elsewhere^{42}. Spectroscopic ellipsometric measurements were performed for multiple angles of incidence between 60° and 75° by using a Woollam M2000U ellipsometer over the spectral range from 0.73 to 6.42 eV. Optical absorption spectra were obtained through spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis using the stacked layer model (sapphire substrate/thin film/surface roughness/air ambient structure). The sample was placed in a continuousflow helium cryostat for optical absorption measurement at 4.5 K.
Theoretical model
We calculated the electronic band structure and phonon dispersion relation of monolayer WS_{2} based on firstprinciples density functional theory within the local density approximation (LDA) as implemented in the QuantumEspresso code^{49}. The monolayer WS_{2} separation from one unit cell to another unit cell was taken as 20 Å in the calculation to eliminate the interlayer interaction. Projector augmentedwave (PAW) pseudopotentials^{50,51} was used with a planewave cutoff energy of 65 Ry to describe the interaction between electrons and ions. The electronic band structure with spinorbit interaction considered was calculated using fully relativistic pseudopotentials derived from an atomic Diraclike equation^{52}. The atomic structure was fully relaxed with atomic force less than 10^{−5} Ry/Bohr. The Brillouin zone (BZ) was sampled over a kmesh of 12 × 12 × 1 under the MonkhorstPack scheme^{53}. The phonon energy dispersion relation of monolayer WS_{2} was calculated based on density functional perturbation theory^{54}. The nonresonant Raman scattering intensity was calculated based on the Placzek approximation as introduced by Lazzeri and Mauri^{55}. It is noted that in Quantum Espresso code, nonresonant Raman spectra based on the Placzek approximation can so far be taken care of only within local density approximation.
The optical absorption spectrum was calculated by the real (ε′) and imaginary (\(\varepsilon ^{\prime\prime} \)) parts of the dielectric function as a function of photon energy, respectively, based on the PAW methodology^{56} and the conventional KramersKronig transformation. The absorption coefficient α is described by α = 4 πκ E_{L}/(hc), where E_{L} is the incident laser excitation energy, h is the Planck constant, c is the speed of light, and κ is the extinction coefficient^{57}, that is, \(\kappa =\sqrt{(\sqrt{\varepsilon {^{\prime} }^{2}+\varepsilon {^{\prime\prime} }^{2}}\varepsilon ^{\prime} )/2}\).
To evaluate the optical absorption as a function of laser energy E_{L} and wave vector in the BZ, the optical absorption probability^{42} was calculated as follows and normalized by \(({{\rm{W}}}_{0}=\frac{2\pi {e}^{2}{\hslash }^{3}I}{{m}^{2}c{\varepsilon }_{0}})\),
in which m is the electron mass, I is the intensity of the incident laser, ε_{0} is the dielectric constant for vacuum, \(\overrightarrow{D}\)(c, v, \(\overrightarrow{k}\)) (=\(\langle {\psi }_{c}(\overrightarrow{k})\nabla {\psi }_{v}(\overrightarrow{k})\rangle \)) is the dipole vector, and \(\overrightarrow{P}\) is the laser polarization.
In order to evaluate the electronphonon matrix element as a function of electron wavevector \(\overrightarrow{k}\) in the first BZ for q = 0 phonon, we adopted the EPW package^{58,59} independently.
Results and Discussion
In Fig. 1(a), we show the Raman scattering spectrum of monolayer WS_{2} at room temperature excited by a 532 nm laser line. The spectrum exhibits two firstorder Raman peaks with the labels of \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) and A_{1g} and several weak double resonant Raman structures as denoted by asterisks. We fitted these peaks by using a standard Lorentzian function. The two main peaks at approximately 356 and 417 cm^{−1} are associated with the zone center and firstorder onephonon emission for inplane and outofplane vibrations with \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) and A_{1g} symmetries, respectively. The peak frequencies (356 cm^{−1} and 417 cm^{−1}) well reproduce the previous Raman scattering measurements, indicating a singlelayer signature^{4,36,37,38}. Moreover, the spatial maps of the Raman frequency within 356 ± 2 cm^{−1} for the \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) mode (Fig. 1(b)) show uniform color contrast in each triangular WS_{2} domain. This evidence indicates that our monolayer WS_{2} is a highquality sample. The assignment of the secondorder Raman phonon modes will be discussed later.
In order to further investigate the vibrational properties of monolayer WS_{2}, we extended the Raman scattering measurements with excitation energies ranging from the nearinfrared to deepultraviolet. In Fig. 2, we plot the Raman scattering spectra of monolayer WS_{2} excited by the nearinfrared 785 nm (∼1.58 eV), visible 532 nm (∼2.33 eV) and 488 nm (∼2.54 eV), ultraviolet 354 nm (∼3.50 eV), and deepultraviolet 266 nm (∼4.66 eV) and 257 nm (∼4.82 eV) laser lights. There are three important features in the spectra. First, when the monolayer WS_{2} is excited at 785 nm, only A_{1g} and weak \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) Raman modes can be seen. The \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) mode is almost suppressed compared with the A_{1g} mode. By contrast, the opposite behavior is observed in the intensities of the \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) and A_{1g} modes for the 532 nm excitation. The possible origins of the disappearance of \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) or A_{1g} will be discussed later. Second, both \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) and A_{1g} modes show the prominent intensities excited by 488 nm, 354 nm, 266 nm, and 257 nm lasers. Additionally, many weak phonon modes appear in the Raman scattering spectra with 532 nm and 488 nm excitations as shown by arrows in Fig. 2. The peak positions of these weak modes shift to higher frequencies with increasing E_{L}, suggesting that these modes are due to the secondorder Raman scattering process^{60,61,62}. Third, the intensities of these secondorder phonon modes in the range of 700∼850 cm^{−1} become significant when the 266 nm and 257 nm lasers are applied.
To understand the origins of Raman scattering spectra due to different laser energies, we first calculate the electronic band structure and optical absorption. In Fig. 3(a), we show electronic band structure and density of states. The band splitting Δ_{soc} on top of valence band due to spinorbit interaction is around 0.44 eV, which agrees very well with the energy splitting (∼0.42 eV) between A and B excitons in our experimental optical absorption data as indicated in Fig. 3(b) and also in the data by Rigosi et al.^{63}. Electronic density of states (DOS) in Fig. 3(a) shows some typical features, such as constant value of DOS due to quadratic band dispersion at band edge of both valence and conduction bands around the zonecorner K point; and also VanHove singularity of DOS due to saddle points in the band structure around the zoneedge center M point. We expect a strong optical transition or Raman intensity for the optical transition for the transition energy of laser light at the VanHove singular DOS. Worth pointing out that due to an underestimate of optical band gap from density functional calculation, we upshift all conduction bands by 0.46 eV. With this band shift, our calculated optical absorption result in blue solid line in Fig. 3(b) agrees reasonably well with the experimental data (measured at 4.5 K) given in red empty dots, except for the absorption intensity that is calculated based on the singleparticle picture without taking into account of electronhole (exciton) interaction. Nevertheless, this difference is not relevant to the present analysis since we discuss the optical absorption for the transition energy with much larger energy than the exciton energies. It is noted that the A and B exciton peaks shift from 2.12 and 2.51 eV, respectively, at 4.5 K to 2.04 and 2.43 eV at 300 K. In Fig. 3(a), we mark the possible vertical optical transition by solid arrows for the laser lines used in the experiment. The electron excitation due to the laser lines of 532 nm (∼2.33 eV) and 488 nm (∼2.54 eV) takes place with wave vector close to the K point, suggesting that the Raman scattering spectra are due to the A or B excitons near the K point. In the case of E_{L} = 1.58 eV, since E_{L} is much smaller than the energy gap at the K point, the Raman scattering spectrum is nonresonant in which the dominant contribution of the Raman scattering intensity comes from the K point.
The vertical transition by the laser line in the ultraviolet 354 nm (∼3.50 eV) occurs more widely in the Brillouin zone, which gives a peak in the joint density of states at 3.50 eV. This situation explains the reason why the Raman peaks other than \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) and A_{1g} are almost invisible (the peaks become broad) compared with other laser lines because the double resonance wavevectors of phonon exists over the Brillouin zone. By contrast, the two laser lines 266 nm (∼4.66 eV) and 257 nm (∼4.82 eV) in the deepultraviolet region give rise to singular joint density of states (JDOS) at the Λ point (around \(\frac{1}{2}\overrightarrow{{\rm{\Gamma }}{\rm{K}}}\)), which leads to specified resonant electronphoton process for prominent double resonance Raman peaks^{42,64}.
To assign the multiple resonant Raman peaks observed in Fig. 2, it is more straightforward to analyze the electronphoton resonant process in the whole Brillouin zone. In Fig. 4, we plot laser energy E_{L} dependence of optical absorption probability W of monolayer WS_{2} in the BZ. Consistent with the previous analysis in the band structure in Fig. 3(a), the wave vector k_{eγ} of electronphoton resonance process for the laser excitation energies of 2.33 and 2.54 eV is around K point, as shown in Fig. 4(b) and (c) while there is no resonant optical absorption in Fig. 4(a). Therefore the Γpoint or Kpoint phonons are expected to contribute to the intraband or interband resonant Raman peaks, respectively. However, the k_{eγ} for the ultraviolet and deepultraviolet lasers is more complicated. Nevertheless, k_{eγ} for the ultraviolet and deepultraviolet lasers is along \(\overrightarrow{{\rm{\Gamma }}K}\) line, as seen from Fig. 4(d–f).
To extract the phonon wave vector q of resonance electronphonon scattering process for the ultraviolet and deepultraviolet lasers, we analyze the possible intervalley/intravalley scattering between λ or \(\lambda ^{\prime} \) points as shown in Fig. 5(a). λ point is defined as a k point along \(\overline{{\rm{\Gamma }}K}\) line and becomes Λ point at 1/2 \(\overline{{\rm{\Gamma }}K}\) line. Starting at the λ points with k_{eγ} = β \(\overline{{\rm{\Gamma }}K}\), the phonon wavevector q can be either q_{K} = β \(\overline{{\rm{\Gamma }}K}\), or q_{M} = 2 β \(\overline{{\rm{\Gamma }}M}\), or q_{K} = 2 β \(\overline{{\rm{\Gamma }}K}\). Here the value of β is a function of E_{L}, as seen from Fig. 4, for example, β takes two values (β = 0.21 and 0.43) for E_{L} = 4.66 eV, and another two values (β = 0.17 and 0.50) for E_{L} = 4.82 eV. The corresponding phonon wave vectors q which satisfied the double resonant condition, including q_{M} near the M point and q_{K} close to the K point, are marked in blue lines in the phonon dispersion relation as shown in Fig. 5(b). We have pointed out in the previous work^{42,65} that Van Hove singularity of both electronic and phonon density of states at the M point can give rise to the resonant electronphoton and electronphonon process, which can significantly enhance the Raman scattering intensity. The Raman peaks above 700 cm^{−1} with large intensity due to both 266 nm and 257 nm laser lines, as seen from Fig. 2, are assigned to the combination mode or overtone mode at the M point (q_{M1}) or close to the M point (q_{M2} = 0.86 \(\overline{{\rm{\Gamma }}M}\)), as indicated in Fig. 5(b) and summarized in Table 1.
Since all these resonant Raman peaks for the ultraviolet and deepultraviolet lasers are due to optical phonon modes, we show the optical phonon dispersion relation as shown in Fig. 5(c). Compared to the well dispersive B_{2g} (dashed blue line) and E_{1g} modes (dashed green lines) along the highsymmetry line, A_{1g} (dashed purple line) and E_{2g} (red solid lines) modes are relatively flat and believed to contribute to the small shift of those resonant Raman peaks around 700 cm^{−1} to 708 cm^{−1} due to both 266 nm and 257 nm laser lines. In particular, the \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) (M) and \({E}_{2g}^{2}\)(M) modes have an opposite energy dispersion to each other, the combinational resonant Raman peak from the two modes should have no obvious laserenergy dependence, such as the pronounced Raman peak at 708 cm^{−1} from 266 nm to 257 nm laser line.
In Table 1, we list up the observed weak Raman scattering spectra excited by 2.33, 2.54, 4.66, and 4.82 eV laser lines and the assignment to the double resonance Raman scattering spectra. The upper part of the Table 1 gives the assignment of the Raman peaks excited by the visible light (2.33 and 2.54 eV). Since all the assigned combination, difference combination and overtone modes are due to the Kpoint phonons, no laser energy dependence of Raman frequency is expected. The lower part of the Table 1 shows the assignment of Raman peaks due to the deepultraviolet lasers (4.66 and 4.82 eV). As discussed above, phonon at or near the M point are responsible for the pronounced Raman peaks. Except for the 2 LA(M) and \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) + \({E}_{2g}^{2}\) modes, an obvious laser energy dependence of Raman peaks due to the deepultraviolet lasers is observed both in the experiment and theory, which is an evidence that the assignment of double resonance Raman peak is consistent with phonon dispersion relation.
Let us briefly discuss the disappearance of A_{1g} intensity at E_{L} = 2.33 eV and \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) intensity at E_{L} = 1.58 eV. In order to check the reproducibility of the relative intensity, we measured the Raman scattering spectra at three different spots. The relative intensity at E_{L} = 2.33 eV is almost identical to that measured by Corro et al.^{38} at 530.9 nm laser line. Corro et al.^{38} attributed this to the excitonphonon interaction between the B exciton and A_{1g} phonon. However, Carvalho et al.^{66} observed in MoS_{2} and MoSe_{2} an enhancement of A_{1g} peak at the energy of the B exciton and explained that the \({d}_{{z}^{2}}\) orbital can couple with the A_{1g} mode other than with the \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) mode. Following the analysis by Carvalho et al.^{66}, we calculated the wavefunctions of the 5 \({d}_{{z}^{2}}\) orbital of W and the 4 \({d}_{{z}^{2}}\) orbital of Mo, we found that the delocalization of atomic orbitals is similar to each other. In fact, the lattice constants of WS_{2} (c = 3.19 Å) and MoS_{2} (c = 3.19 Å) are almost identical. But the result for WS_{2} is opposite to that of MoS_{2} and MoSe_{2}. The previous excitonphonon effect between the A_{1g} mode and the B exciton can not apply to WS_{2}. It is pointed out that the disappearance of the A_{1g} mode at the energy of the C exciton (MoS_{2} at E_{L} = 2.75 eV, MoSe_{2} at E_{L} = 2.60 eV) can be explained by the excitonphonon interaction according to the discussion by Carvalho et al.^{66}. Though we do not have the Raman scattering spectra of WS_{2} at the C exciton energy (2.80 eV), Corro et al. showed the disappearance of A_{1g} mode at 457.9 nm and 472.7 nm laser lines^{38}.
Here we try to consider two possible origins of the disappearance of the A_{1g} mode. One of possible origins is due to the node of electronphonon matrix element around the K point^{64}. Since we do not calculate directly the excitonphonon matrix element that is given by weighted sum of electronphonon matrix element^{67}, we can not specify the energy in which the excitonphonon matrix element becomes zero. It should be mentioned that the laser energy that gives zero electronphonon matrix element is 3.06 eV that is much larger than 2.33 eV even if we consider the exciton binding energy. Another possible reason for the disappearance of the A_{1g} mode is the strain effect of the Raman scattering intensity. In Fig. 6(a,b), we show the nonresonant Raman scattering spectra calculated based on the Placzek polarizability theory^{55} at both (a) zero and (b) 2% isotropic tensile strain. In Fig. 6(c), we show the strain dependence of A_{1g} intensity as a function of strain and A_{1g} intensity exponentially decreases with increasing isotropic tensile strain. It is noted that the A_{1g} intensity does not decrease much for uniaxial strain. We expect that the A_{1g} disappearance at 2.33 eV may have something to do with lattice tensile strain effect possibly due to laser heating. However, since we did not study power dependence of Raman scattering spectra, we could not see if the strain effect is essential of not. And 2% strain is relatively large from the thermal expansion or the interlayer interaction between WS_{2} and the sapphire substrate.
As for the disappearance of \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) at E_{L} = 1.58 eV, since this Raman scattering process is nonresonance, the main contribution to Raman scattering intensity is the Kpoint optical absorption which is valleypolarized. That means that only lefthanded (or righthanded) component of the circular polarized light is absorbed and emitted at the K(or \(K^{\prime} \)) point. Since \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) mode changes the helicity of circular polarized light in the scattered light, the Raman scattering process of \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) is suppressed by valley polarization. It is the reason why \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) is suppressed for 1.58 eV. It is important to note that this effect of valley polarization occurs even when incident light is linearly polarized. The linear polarized light is expressed by the sum of lefthanded and righthanded circular light for each of which the optical absorption occurs at the K and \(K^{\prime} \) points.
Summary
In summary, we report a combined experimental and theoretical study of the deepultraviolet Raman scattering spectra of monolayer WS_{2} in which we observed new intense Raman peaks in the range of 700∼850 cm^{−1}, which can be assigned to the double resonance Raman scattering spectra with the phonon wave vector connecting the Λ points. Though the peaks show dispersive behavior of Raman frequency with increasing E_{L}, the other Raman peaks show nondispersive nature because of the opposite phonon dispersion to each other for a combination modes of the \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) and \({E}_{2g}^{2}\) modes. The disappearance of A_{1g} peak with the 2.33 eV laser excitation is probably from a lattice tensile strain due to laser heating, while disappearance of \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) peak with the 1.58 eV laser excitation is due to valley polarization effect and helicity exchanged Raman process of the \({E}_{2g}^{1}\) mode.
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Acknowledgements
H.L.L. thanks financial support from the Ministry of Science and Technology of Republic of China under Grants No. MOST 1052112M003013MY3 and Academia Sinica under thematic project Grant No. AS105TPA03. T.Y. and Z.D.Z. acknowledge the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFA0206301) and the Major Program of Aerospace Advanced Manufacturing Technology Research Foundation NSFC and CASC, China (No. U1537204). H.G. acknowledges NSFC Grant No. 51702146 and Liaoning Province Doctor Startup Fund (No. 201601325). L.J.L. thanks the support from Taiwan Consortium of Emergent Crystalline Materials (TCECM), Ministry of Science and Technology, and USA AFOSR BRI (FA238615100015). R.S. acknowledges MEXTJapan Grants Nos. JP25107005, JP15K21722, and JP18H01810. Y.K. and S.K. acknowledge JSPSJapan Grants No. JP21226003. Y.T. acknowledges World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI), MEXT, Japan.
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H.L.L., Y.K. and S.K. conceived the idea and designed the experiments. H.L.L. and Y.K. performed the experiments. M.Y.L. and L.J.L. prepared the samples. T.Y., Y.T., Y.Z., B.D., H.G., Z.D.Z. and R.S. performed the firstprinciples calculations and theoretical analyses. H.L.L. and T.Y. wrote the paper. All the authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript.
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Liu, HL., Yang, T., Tatsumi, Y. et al. Deepultraviolet Raman scattering spectroscopy of monolayer WS_{2}. Sci Rep 8, 11398 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598018295870
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