Tracking long-term environmental change is important, particularly for freshwater ecosystems, often with high rates of decline. Waterbirds are key indicators of freshwater ecosystem change, with groups reflecting food availability (e.g. piscivores and fish). We store waterbird (species abundance, numbers of nests and broods) and wetland area data from aerial surveys of waterbirds across Australia, mostly at the species’ level (∼100 species) from three aerial survey programs: Eastern Australian Waterbird Survey, National Survey and Murray-Darling Basin wetlands. Across eastern Australia, we survey up to 2,000 wetlands annually (October, since 1983), along 10 survey bands (30 km wide), east to west across about one third of Australia. In 2008, we surveyed 4,858 wetlands across Australia and each year (since 2010) we survey the major wetlands in the Murray-Darling Basin. These data inform regulation of hunting seasons in Victoria and South Australia, Game bird culling in NSW, State of the Environment Reporting, environmental assessments, river and wetland management, the status of individual species and identification of high conservation sites.
|Measurement(s)||population • numbers of waterbird species • brood size • nest count|
|Technology Type(s)||visual observation method|
|Factor Type(s)||year • geographic location|
|Sample Characteristic - Organism||Aves|
|Sample Characteristic - Environment||wetland area|
|Sample Characteristic - Location||Australia|
Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12280112
Background & Summary
The world’s biodiversity is impacted by increasing extinction rates1,2, particularly affecting freshwater aquatic ecosystems3. Water resource developments, invasive species, pollution, overharvesting and climate change are driving this decline4,5. Despite identification of long-term impacts, availability of biological data to track these changes remains poor, even though there is reasonably good data on the threats6,7, and effective means of tracking wetland loss using satellite image analyses8. In particular, there are relatively few large scale data sets available for mobile animals, extending over long periods of time, making it difficult to track long term effects of threats on freshwater biota.
Waterbird communities are a useful indicator group of organisms for monitoring changes to freshwater ecosystems9, given they are obligate aquatic organisms responsive to natural and anthropogenic changes in wetland ecosystems10,11. They are often considered a ‘flagship’ group for tracking changes in freshwater ecosystems and are included as a criterion for nomination of wetlands of international importance under the Ramsar Convention and the Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas designated by BirdLife International. They are also the centrepiece of migratory bird agreements (e.g. China Australia Migratory Bird Agreement). For further assessment of ecosystems, individual waterbird species may be categorised into functional response groups, reflecting different combinations of diet and habitat use12,13. This allows broad assessment of changes to wetland habitats12, including detrimental changes in ecosystem condition14,15.
Aerial surveys of waterbirds provide a rapid and cost effective method for collecting data over large spatial and long temporal scales16,17,18,19,20,21. Waterbirds are counted from a low flying aircraft (<50 m), with observers identifying and estimating the numbers of each species of waterbird on a wetland. The aircraft can manoeuvre and access large areas of wetland which may be inaccessible for ground or boat counts20. Given that aircraft can access remote areas at large spatial scales, there are also opportunities for spatial comparisons of data. Long term data can form the basis for analyses of changes in freshwater ecosystem condition.
The collection of this monitoring data on waterbirds in Australia is serving some key goals. First, the data are used each year by the governments of Victoria and South Australia to assess whether there are sufficient ‘game’ species (7 species11) for the setting of recreational duck hunting regulations. Game management authorities also assess the availability of wetland areas and non-target species, using data from aerial surveys21. These data are also critical for informing on the status and condition of rivers and important wetland areas for management. For example, the Murray-Darling Basin dataset, covering about one sixth of the continent in south-eastern Australia (Fig. 1), is tracking changes in waterbird abundances as a measure of river and wetland health. Australia has also used these data to track long-term changes reported in State of Environment Reporting at state and national levels. These data can also track long term changes in the ecological health of Ramsar-listed wetlands (e.g. Macquarie Marshes22). National legislation related to internationally significant Ramsar wetlands also necessitates assessment of potential changes to ecological character by potential developments. There is also a broad goal to track long term changes in species’ abundances and range for assessment of their Red-listing status. Finally, data for particular wetlands can be used to identify areas of high biodiversity value which can be prioritised for protection in the protected area network or other mechanisms.
We developed the Australian Waterbird Surveys (AWS) database to store and provide access to temporal and spatial waterbird data on individual species, their breeding status and estimates of wetland area, collected during annual aerial surveys, extending back to 1983. The data have been used for a range of published papers11,12,14,20,21,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43. The core methodology for these surveys has remained the same. The database includes three principal survey programs: the Eastern Australian Waterbird Survey, the National Waterbird Survey and surveys of the major wetland sites in the Murray-Darling Basin (Fig. 1). Since 1983, the Eastern Australian Waterbird Survey has covered about a third of the continent each October, representing one of the larger and longer running biodiversity surveys in Australia, sampling wetland and waterbird communities across 2.7 million km2 of eastern Australia. In 2008, a relatively dry year, we did aerial surveys over most large wetlands across Australia during a period of two months comprising the National Waterbird Survey (Fig. 1). And since 2010, we have comprehensively surveyed all the major wetlands in the Murray-Darling Basin (Fig. 1).
The Eastern Australian Waterbird Survey consists of 10 survey bands (30 km wide), extending from coast of eastern Australia through to the Northern Territory border (Fig. 1). Within each survey band, all rivers and wetlands (>1 ha) are marked and surveyed each October (1983–2019), currently providing more than three decades of data on up to 2,000 wetlands. In addition, small wetlands (<1 ha, e.g. small farm dams), not marked on 1:250,000 maps, are also surveyed in ad-hoc fashion while traversing between mapped units. These were surveyed reasonably consistently each year, within the survey bands, and their encounter rate was primarily dependent on their frequency of occurrence and whether other large wetlands were counted nearby. The number of wetlands surveyed each year varies with flooding and drying events. For the national survey in 2008 (30th Sept–30th November), we focused on all wetlands known to be significant for waterbirds, given that waterbirds concentrate on a relatively few large or productive wetlands11,21. This included all inland or coastal wetlands listed under the International Convention for Wetlands (Ramsar) and all sites listed in Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia (http://www.environment.gov.au/water/wetlands/australian-wetlands-database/directory-important-wetlands) (Fig. 1). To improve the efficiency of the aerial survey, satellite imagery (Landsat or MODIS) was also inspected prior to the survey to identify inundated or dry wetlands, allowing us to conserve resources and not survey dry wetlands, usually on the western extremities of the survey bands. Wetland spatial data were extracted from the 1:250,000 national waterbody layer44 and loaded on GPS systems. For the major wetlands in the Murray-Darling Basin, we surveyed all the major wetlands (2010–2019, including most Ramsar-listed sites), and all major floodplains and lakes (Fig. 1).
Waterbirds (including nests and broods) were counted from high-winged aircraft (e.g. Cessna 206 or 208) at 167–204 km hr−1 and a height of 30–46 m, within 150 m of the wetland’s shoreline where waterbirds concentrated12 (Tables 1 and 2). A front-right observer (navigator) and a back-left observer independently record counts on audio recorders, with their combined counts making up a completed count21. Counts are attributed on the recorder to a unique number for each wetland, and a geolocation (longitude, latitude), as well as the exact time of day the survey commenced. All timing is synchronised to GPS time – this enables audio counts to be linked to location via a GPS track log of the flight path (Table S1). Also, the percent fullness (inundated area) of each wetland is estimated, relative to the mapped high water mark44; inundated areas (ha) are also estimated for wetlands which are not mapped (Table 1). All waterbirds are identified to species, except those few that cannot be consistently identified to species’ level from the air and were grouped: small grebes (Australasian little grebe, hoary headed grebe), small egrets (Cattle egret, Little egret and Intermediate egret), terns and small and large migratory wading birds (Charadriformes) (Tables 1 and S2). Counts of no birds are also recorded, as are dry wetlands. Waterbirds are counted singly and in groups, progressively increasing up to 1,000 individuals.
Three counting techniques are used: total counts, proportion counts and transect counts. For total counts, all birds are counted during a circumnavigation of the wetland, the preferred method for wetlands with large concentrations of waterbirds. For proportion counts, a proportion (usually >50%) of a large wetland with few waterbirds (e.g. large dam) is surveyed, with counts extrapolated to give total counts. For the final transect method, waterbirds are counted within 200 m-wide transects (100 m on each side of the aircraft, delineated by tape on each aircraft wing strut), a technique only used for braided complex large wetlands. Total estimates are formed from the relative area of the transects, compared to total area flooded.
Data entry, processing and output
As each record of data is entered, it is checked by JSON for errors by checking non bird count data is consistent among observers; for example, date and time of survey, unit name, percent full and area must match. Second, for mapped wetland units, their numbers, geolocations and areas are checked against that obtained from the waterbody map layer. Ultimately, a count of the numbers of each species (and any nests or broods) are totalled for each wetland for total counts and extrapolations of proportions or transect counts (Tables 1 and S1). This defines the information for the waterbird count in the data record. The data record for the wetland can then displayed in a Google Maps interface, supported by the Australian Waterbird Surveys database (https://aws.ecosystem.unsw.edu.au/). Australian Waterbird Surveys is a relational database management system, originally constructed in MSAccess using structured query language (SQL) to link with GIS software and deliver the database online via a server. It allows flexible retrieval of the temporal and spatial dimensions of the data.
A data record consists of counts of each waterbird species (abundance, number of nests and broods) for each wetland, during a particular survey (Tables 1 and S1). In addition, the type of count and replicate number of the count are included (Table 1). This data record is linked to data for waterbird species (Table S2), the wetland (linked to wetland complex and river basin), observer and survey program (Table 2). The survey program defines the spatial and temporal scale of the aerial survey of waterbirds which can depend on the survey design and level of funding. The most comprehensive dataset in the Australian Waterbird Survey database, the Eastern Australian Waterbird Survey dataset spans 37 years (1983–2019) over up to 2,000 wetlands and ∼100 waterbird species (Fig. 1, Table S2). The National Waterbird Survey in 2008, involved a survey of 4,858 wetlands across Australia between the end of September and end of November, Fig. 1). The third survey program focuses on the major wetlands in the Murray-Darling Basin Surveys, surveyed each year in October-November since 2010, with wetlands along the River Murray surveyed since 2007 (Fig. 1).
Like all relational database systems, data records are supported by lookup tables of invariant data (Table 1). The Wetlands table and related tables contains data relating to wetland physical and cadastral attributes (name, geographic coordinates, mapped area, unique wetland Identification number, river basin, drainage division and state). The table relating to different waterbird species is linked to the Australian Faunal Directory (Tables 2 & S2) and the database also holds records of the different observers used on aerial surveys (Table 2). All these aerial survey data, including available data entry files and tracklogs can be accessed at figshare45.
All observers were trained to rapidly count and identify the different waterbird species, including recognition of their wing patterns from above. They were also trained, sitting behind an experienced observer linked by an intercom which allowed the trainee to hear identifications and counts of waterbirds. Wildlife counting software was also employed to improve and evaluate rapid counting skills (http://www.fws.gov/waterfowlsurveys/). All observers were trained over a period of at least 50 hours and their data evaluated by comparison to an experienced observer.
Large shallow or complex braided wetlands sometimes had waterbirds distributed across their surface. These required either transect counts or total counts of different parts of the wetland. For wetlands where only proportion counts were used, surveys generally cover more than half the area counted with some areas omitted where manoeuvrability of the aircraft is limiting (e.g. long convoluted bays). Wetlands where only about half the wetland are counted, were usually large dams with relatively few waterbirds. Total counts were usually attempted when large numbers of waterbirds were encountered.
Aerial surveys of multispecies flocks of waterbirds are inherently imprecise but can separate orders of magnitude variation reasonably well20. Spatial and temporal changes in waterbird populations often considerably exceed the measurement variation experienced with aerial surveys of waterbirds11,14. For major wetlands in the National Wetland and Murray-Darling Basin survey programs, replicate counts allow for some measurement of this variation.
Wetland locations and boundaries are difficult to map accurately, particularly in areas of low topographic relief and unpredictable flooding patterns, experienced across large parts of the Australian continent. Geographic details for small (<1 ha) wetlands are reliant on georeferencing from the aircraft which may be uncertain depending on the proximity of the aircraft when the reading is provided, compared to the actual location of the wetland. Similarly, some linear features such as streams and small watercourses are mapped as polylines and hence areas are not available; assessment of wetland area at the time of the survey were used to provide areas for these freshwater systems.
The graphical user interface on the Australian Waterbird Survey database allows access to data through a spatial portal. Users can access and download data by specifying an area by defining a circle or a box over a selected region on the Google Maps interface. This allows selection of different aerial survey programs and downloading of data as text (csv) file.
Pimm, S. L. et al. The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection. Science 344, 1246752 (2014).
IPBES Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. Díaz, S et al. (eds.). Report (IPBES secretariat, Bonn, Germany, 2019).
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. (Island Press. Washington, DC (2005).
Dudgeon, D. et al. Freshwater biodiversity: importance, threats, status and conservation challenges. Biol. Rev. 81, 163–182 (2006).
Kingsford, R. T., Bassett, A. & Jackson, L. Wetlands: conservation’s poor cousins. Aquat. Conserv. 26, 892–916 (2016).
Vörösmarty, C. J. et al. Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity. Nature 467, 555–561 (2010).
Lehner, B. et al. High-resolution mapping of the world’s reservoirs and dams for sustainable river-flow management. Front. Ecol. Environ. 9, 494–502 (2011).
Teferi, E. et al. The use of remote sensing to quantify wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range, Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 14, 2415–2428 (2010).
Amat, J. A. & Green, A. J. Waterbirds as bioindicators of environmental conditions. In Conservation monitoring in freshwater habitats Hurford, C., Schneider, M. & Cowx, I. (eds). 45–52 (Springer, 2010).
Studds, C. E. et al. Rapid population decline in migratory shorebirds relying on Yellow Sea tidal mudflats as stopover sites. Nat. Commun. 8, 14895 (2017).
Kingsford, R. T., Bino, G. & Porter, J. L. Continental impacts of water development on waterbirds, contrasting two Australian river basins: Global implications for sustainable water use. Global Change Biol. 23, 4958–4969 (2017).
Kingsford, R. T. & Porter, J. L. Waterbirds on an adjacent freshwater lake and salt lake in arid Australia. Biol. Conserv. 69, 219–228 (1994).
Cumming, G. S., Paxton, M., King, J. & Beuster, H. J. F. B. Foraging guild membership explains variation in waterbird responses to the hydrological regime of an arid‐region flood‐pulse river in Namibia. Freshwater Biol. 57, 1202–1213 (2012).
Kingsford, R. T. & Thomas, R. F. Destruction of wetlands and waterbird populations by dams and irrigation on the Murrumbidgee River in Arid Australia. Environ. Manage. 34, 383–396 (2004).
Halse, S. A. et al. Monitoring wetlands in a salinizing landscape: case studies from the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia. Hydrobiologia 591, 147–164 (2007).
Henny, C. J., Anderson, D. R. & Pospahala, R. S. Aerial surveys of waterfowl production in North America, 1955–71. United States Fish & Wildlife Special Scientific Report 160, 48 (1972).
Bayliss, P. & Yeomans, K. M. Seasonal distribution and abundance of Magpie Geese Anseranas semipalmata Latham, in the Northern Territory, and their relationship to habitat, 1983–86. Aust. Wildlife Res. 17, 15–38 (1990).
Hodges, J. & Eldridge, W. J. W. Aerial surveys of eiders and other waterbirds on the eastern Arctic coast of Russia. Wildfowl 52, 127–142 (2001).
Marchowski, D., Jankowiak, Ł., Ławicki, Ł. & Wysocki, D. Waterbird counts on large water bodies: Comparing ground and aerial methods during different ice conditions. PeerJ 6(2), e5195 (2018).
Kingsford, R. T. Aerial survey of waterbirds on wetlands as a measure of river and floodplain health. Freshwater Biol. 41, 425–438 (1999).
Kingsford, R. T. & Porter, J. L. Monitoring waterbird populations with aerial surveys - what have we learnt? Wildlife Res. 36, 29–40 (2009).
Kingsford, R. T. & Thomas, R. F. The Macquarie Marshes in arid Australia and their waterbirds: a 50 year history of decline. Environ. Manage 19, 867–878 (1995).
Braithwaite, L. W., Maher, M., Briggs, S. V. & Parker, B. S. An aerial survey of three game species of waterfowl (Family Anatidae) in eastern Australia. Aust. Wild. Res. 13, 213–23 (1986).
Kingsford, R. T. & Porter, J. L. Waterbirds of Lake Eyre, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 65, 141–151 (1993).
Kingsford, R. T. Occurrence of high concentrations of waterbirds in arid Australia. J. Arid Environ. 29, 421–425 (1995).
Kingsford, R. T. & Thomas, R. F. The Macquarie Marshes and its waterbirds in arid Australia: a 50-year history of decline. Environ. Manage. 19, 867–878 (1995).
Kingsford, R. T. Wildfowl (Anatidae) movements in arid Australia. In Proceedings of the Anatidae 2000 Conference, Strasbourg, France 5-9 December 1994, (eds.) et al. Gibier Faune Sauvage, Game Wildlife 13, 141–155 (1996).
Kingsford, R. T. & Halse, S. A. Waterbirds as a flagship for wetland conservation in arid Australia, in McComb, A. J. & Davis, J. A. (eds), Wetlands for the future. Proceedings of INTECOL’s V International Wetlands Conference, Gleneagles Press, Adelaide, 139–160 (1998).
Kingsford, R. T. Managing the water of the Border Rivers in Australia: irrigation, government and the wetland environment. Wetl. Ecol. and Manag. 7, 25–35 (1999).
Kingsford, R. T., Wong, P. S., Braithwaite, L. W. & Maher, M. T. Waterbird abundance in eastern Australia, 1983–1992. Wildlife Res. 26, 351–366 (1999).
Kingsford, R. T., Curtin, A. L. & Porter, J. L. Water flows on Cooper Creek determine boom and bust periods for waterbirds. Biol. Conserv. 88, 231–248 (1999).
Dorfman, E. & Kingsford, R. T. Movements of cormorants in arid Australia. J. Arid Environ. 49, 677–694 (2001).
Dorfman, E. J., Kingsford, R. & Porter, J. Use of natural and artificial wetlands by Australian waterbirds: implications for population growth and management. Proc. Internat. Assoc. Theor.l and Appl. Limnol. 28, 1–5 (2002).
Kingsford, R. T., Jenkins, K. M. & Porter, J. L. Imposed hydrological stability on lakes in arid Australia and effect on waterbirds. Ecology 85, 2478–2492 (2004).
Nebel, S., Porter, J. L. & Kingsford, R. T. ‘Long-term trends of shorebird populations in eastern Australia and impacts of freshwater extraction’. Biol. Conserv. 141, 971–980 (2008).
Kingsford, R. T., Roshier, D. A. & Porter, J. L. Australian waterbirds—time and space travellers in a changing landscape. Mar. Freshwater Res. 61, 875–884 (2010).
Wen, L., Rogers, K., Saintilan, N. & Ling, J. The influences of climate and hydrology on population dynamics of waterbirds in the Lower Murrumbidgee River Floodplains in Southeast Australia: implications for environmental water management. Ecol. Model 222, 154–163 (2011).
Keith, D. A. et al. Scientific foundations for an IUCN Red List of Ecosystems. Plos Biol. 8, e62111 (2013).
Bino, G., Kingsford, R. T. & Porter, J. Prioritizing Wetlands for Waterbirds in a boom and bust system: Waterbird Refugia and Breeding in the Murray-Darling Basin. PLoS One 10, e0132682, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132682 (2015).
Colloff, M. J., Caley, P., Saintilan, N., Pollino, C. A. & Crossman, N. D. Long-term ecological trends of flow-dependent ecosystems in a major regulated river basin. Mar. Freshwater Res. 66, 957–969 (2015).
Kingsford, R. T. et al. commentary on ‘Long-term ecological trends of flow-dependent ecosystems in a major regulatAed river basin’, by Matthew J. Colloff, Peter Caley, Neil Saintilan, Carmel A. Pollino and Neville D. Crossman. Mar. Freshwater Res. 66, 970–980 (2015).
Wen, L., Saintilan, N., Reid, J. R. W. & Colloff, M. J. Changes in distribution of waterbirds following prolonged drought reflect habitat availability in coastal and inland regions. Ecology and Evolution 6, 6672–6689 (2016).
Bino, G., Brandis, K., Kingsford, R. T. & Porter, J. Waterbird synchrony across Australia’s highly variable dryland rivers – risks and opportunities for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 243, 108497 (2020).
Geoscience Australia. Geodata Topographic 250k Series 3-Packaged (Australian Government (2008).
Kingsford, R. T., Porter, J. L., Brandis, K. J. & Ryall, S. Australian Aerial Waterbird Survey Database. figshare https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.11853387.v3 (2020).
Surveys of waterbirds in Australia are primarily funded by State and Commonwealth Governments of Australia, including the New South Wales, Queensland, South Australian and Victorian Governments as well as the Australian Government, including the Murray-Darling Basin Authority. The database was developed using funding from UNSW and ANDS and Australian Research Council Linkage Grant (LP180100159). We thank the many observers and pilots who have flown the surveys, particularly Richard Byrne, and people who collated, checked and entered data.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Kingsford, R.T., Porter, J.L., Brandis, K.J. et al. Aerial surveys of waterbirds in Australia. Sci Data 7, 172 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-0512-9
On inferring population trends of mobile waterbirds from aerial transect surveys in variable environments
Environmental and Ecological Statistics (2021)