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We thank K. Sinha for help generating the disulfide-crosslinked nucleosome; J. Tretyakova for preparing histones; S. Sanulli, J. Gross, J. Lobel and Y. Cheng for feedback in preparing this manuscript; and all members of the Narlikar laboratory for discussions. This work was supported by a grant from the NIH to G.J.N. (R35GM127020) and an NSF predoctoral and UCSF discovery fellowship to N.G.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Peer review information Anke Sparmann was the primary editor on this article and managed its editorial process and peer review in collaboration with the rest of the editorial team.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
SDS-PAGE gels of Xenopus laevis of histones used to prepare all nucleosomes in this study. (a) Wild type (WT) Histone H2A-H2B dimer as well as H3C110A histone octamer and H3C110A sCX2 (H3 L82C, H4 V81C) histone octamer oxidized using copper phenanthroline (CuPhe) or oxidized glutathione (GSSG). (b) The same samples used in (A) treated with 100 mM DTT in order to reduce the disulfide bond. Uncropped images are available as source data files. SDS-PAGE analysis was only performed once for all samples.
Extended Data Fig. 2 Remodeling of oxidized nucleosomes is slowed specifically due to disulfide bond formation and is robust to remodeling conditions.
(a) Left. Native gel remodeling assay with saturating SNF2h (1 μM), saturating ATP, and 15 nM cy3-nucleosomes as in Fig. 1. Middle. Quantification of the experiment at the left including a plot of all time points; and for ease of comparison a plot of the first 15 minutes of the reaction normalized to the best-fit parameters for Y0 and plateau. This experiment was performed 3 times with similar results. Right. Mean observed rate constants (kobs) from 3 independent experiments. Error bars reflect the standard error of the mean (SEM). (b) Left. Native gel remodeling assay with sub-saturating SNF2h (50 nM), saturating ATP, and 15 nM cy3-nucleosomes as in Fig. 1. Middle. Quantification of the experiment on the left. This experiment was performed 3 times with similar results. Right. Mean and SEM of the observed rate constants (kobs) from 3 independent experiments. The asterisk denotes that the rate constant for the oxidized reaction condition was too slow to reliably quantify with the time points taken. (C) Left. Native gel remodeling assay under the conditions of Yan et al. 2 using 50 nM SNF2h, saturating ATP, and 15 nM cy3-nucleosomes. Remodeling overall is substantially faster likely because of the different conditions used (higher temperature, lower salt concentration, the absence of .02% (v/v) NP40, and the presence of 0.1 mg/mL BSA). Middle. Quantification of the gel on the left along with the indicated observed rate constants. This experiment was performed once. Right. Time courses shown in the middle panel normalized to the best fit parameters for Y0 and Plateau of the exponential decay and zoomed in to the first 10 minutes of the reaction to better evaluate the fits. Uncropped images for panels A-C are available in Source Data and values obtained in quantifications are in Supplementary Table 1.
(a) Native gel remodeling assay with saturating SNF2h (1 µM), saturating ATP, and 15 nM cy3-nucleosomes as in Fig. 1. Nucleosomes containing the oxidized sCX2 bonds were generated by oxidizing the H3C110A sCX2 octamer using CuPhe, and then assembling nucleosomes. Treatment of these nucleosomes with excess DTT as in Yan et al. fails to reverse the remodeling defect. (b) Scheme for the samples run in C. Nucleosomes treated with DTT were either directly added to non-reducing SDS-PAGE loading buffer or quenched with 500 mM N-Ethyl Maleimide freshly dissolved in DMSO (final [DMSO] ≈ 10%(v/v)). Additionally, a condition where N-Ethyl Maleimide and DTT were added simultaneously is included to evaluate the efficacy of the quench. (c) SDS-PAGE of samples treated as in B. Samples with reducing agent quenched prior to running on the gel are near-completely oxidized. The experiments shown here were performed once.
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Gamarra, N., Narlikar, G.J. Histone dynamics play a critical role in SNF2h-mediated nucleosome sliding. Nat Struct Mol Biol 28, 548–551 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41594-021-00620-7
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology (2021)