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A computational framework to explore large-scale biosynthetic diversity


Genome mining has become a key technology to exploit natural product diversity. Although initially performed on a single-genome basis, the process is now being scaled up to mine entire genera, strain collections and microbiomes. However, no bioinformatic framework is currently available for effectively analyzing datasets of this size and complexity. In the present study, a streamlined computational workflow is provided, consisting of two new software tools: the ‘biosynthetic gene similarity clustering and prospecting engine’ (BiG-SCAPE), which facilitates fast and interactive sequence similarity network analysis of biosynthetic gene clusters and gene cluster families; and the ‘core analysis of syntenic orthologues to prioritize natural product gene clusters’ (CORASON), which elucidates phylogenetic relationships within and across these families. BiG-SCAPE is validated by correlating its output to metabolomic data across 363 actinobacterial strains and the discovery potential of CORASON is demonstrated by comprehensively mapping biosynthetic diversity across a range of detoxin/rimosamide-related gene cluster families, culminating in the characterization of seven detoxin analogues.

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Fig. 1: The BiG-SCAPE/CORASON workflow.
Fig. 2: Main concepts in the BiG-SCAPE algorithm.
Fig. 3: Sequence similarity and molecular networks of detoxins/rimosamides.
Fig. 4: CORASON workflow.
Fig. 5: CORASON phylogeny of detoxin/rimosamide-related BGCs.

Data availability

Genomes used in this study include assemblies from the sequencing project deposited in NCBI BioProject PRJNA488366, in Sequence Read Archive runs with accession numbers SRX4638772 to SRX4639021. AntiSMASH, BiG-SCAPE and CORASON results for all genome assemblies, along with raw files of phylogenetic trees, are available from ref. 50. Fully annotated nucleotide sequences for the BGCs for detoxin S1, detoxins N2–N3 and detoxins P1–P3 have been deposited in the Third Party Annotation Section of the DDBJ/ENA/GenBank databases under accession numbers BK010707, BK010852 and BK010851, respectively, and in MIBiG under accession numbers BGC0001840, BGC0001878 and BGC0001841, respectively. All raw MS data files for strains producing one or more of the nine compounds used for correlation analysis have been submitted to MassIVE under accession number MSV000083738. Raw MS data files and isolated MS/MS scan files for all newly identified detoxin analogues have been uploaded to MassIVE with accession number MSV000083648, and MS/MS data for other strains are available upon request.

Code availability

All our software is open source. An overview of both BiG-SCAPE and CORASON can be found at, BiG-SCAPE project at and CORASON project at


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We thank the following: the ARS of the USDA for providing bacterial strains; H. Sook Ann, Z. Crispino, Y. Kim, N. Ciszek and K. Espejo for generating bacterial culture extracts; R. McClure, M. Robey and G. Miley for assistance with and contributions to metabolomic data collection methods and acquisition; and Dr. Y. Zhang and Dr. Y. Wu of the Integrated Molecular Structure Education and Research Center (IMSERC) at Northwestern University for assistance in acquiring NMR data. Some analyses were carried out using CONABIO’s computing cluster, with funds from the Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources. We thank K. Blin for technical assistance with setting up the website on the domain. The research reported in this publication was supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (grant no. 863.15.002 to M.H.M.), the Graduate School for Experimental Plant Sciences (grant to M.H.M.); National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genome to Natural Products Network supplementary award (no. U01GM110706 to M.H.M.), CONACyT grants (grant nos. CBS2017_285746 and 2017_051TAMU to F.B.-G.; postdoctoral scholarship 263661 to J.C.N.M.; PhD scholarship 204482 to N.S.M. (who was also supported by the Innovation Secretary of Guanajuato)), the National Cancer Institute of the NIH (award no. F32CA221327 to M.W.M.), the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (award no. F32GM120999 to E.I.P.), the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP, grant no. 17/08038-8 to L.T.D.C.), the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health of the NIH (award no. R01AT009143 to R.J.T. and N.L.K.) and Warwick Integrative Synthetic Biology Centre, a UK Synthetic Biology Research grant from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council and Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (grant no. BB/M017982/1 to E.L.C.D.L.S). This work made use of the IMSERC at Northwestern University, which has received support from the NIH (grant nos. 1S10OD012016-01/1S10RR019071-01A1), the State of Illinois and the International Institute for Nanotechnology. A.F.-G. received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (Blue Growth: Unlocking the Potential of Seas and Oceans; grant agreement no. 634486).

Author information




R.J.T., W.W.M., N.L.K., F.B.-G. and M.H.M. originally conceived of the research and coordinated the work. J.C.N.M. designed and developed BiG-SCAPE, with the help of S.A.K., E.L.C.D.L.S., M.Y., S.A., A.R., W.L., A.F.-G. and M.H.M. S.A.K. designed the output visualizations with the help of J.C.N.M. and E.L.C.D.L.S. N.S.M. designed and developed CORASON, with the help of P.C.M. and F.B.-G. M.W.M., J.H.T., E.I.P., L.T.D.C., A.W.G., R.J.T., W.W.M. and N.L.K. designed and performed the experimental research. J.C.N.M., N.S.M., M.W.M., J.H.T., F.B.-G. and M.H.M. wrote the first draft of the manuscript and all authors participated in editing the manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Neil L. Kelleher or Francisco Barona-Gomez or Marnix H. Medema.

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Competing interests

M.H.M. is on the scientific advisory board of Hexagon Bio and co-founder of Design Pharmaceuticals. N.L.K., W.W.M. and R.J.T. are on the board of directors of MicroMGx, and A.W.G. is chief scientific officer at MicroMGx.

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Supplementary Information

Supplementary Tables 1–7, Figs, 1–43 and Notes 1 and 2.

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Supplementary Dataset 1

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Navarro-Muñoz, J.C., Selem-Mojica, N., Mullowney, M.W. et al. A computational framework to explore large-scale biosynthetic diversity. Nat Chem Biol 16, 60–68 (2020).

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