Parkinson disease risk variants in East Asian populations

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified multiple loci associated with Parkinson disease; however, most of these studies were carried out in North American or European populations. A large-scale GWAS in East Asian populations has now identified two novel Parkinson disease-associated loci, which could improve risk prediction in Asian individuals.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1.

    Nalls, M. A. et al. Identification of novel risk loci, causal insights, and heritable risk for Parkinson’s disease: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. Lancet Neurol. 18, 1091–1102 (2019).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Hentati, F. et al. LRRK2 parkinsonism in Tunisia and Norway: A comparative analysis of disease penetrance. Neurology 83, 568–569 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Farrer, M. J. et al. Lrrk2 G2385R is an ancestral risk factor for Parkinson’s disease in Asia. Park. Relat. Disord. 13, 89–92 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Foo, J. N. et al. Identification of risk loci for Parkinson Disease in Asians and comparison of risk between Asians and Europeans: a genome-wide association study. JAMA Neurol. 77, 746–754 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Karczewski, K. J. et al. The mutational constraint spectrum quantified from variation in 141,456 humans. Nature 581, 434–443 (2020)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Satake, W. et al. Genome-wide association study identifies common variants at four loci as genetic risk factors for Parkinson’s disease. Nat. Genet. 41, 1303–1307 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Zuk, O. et al. Searching for missing heritability: Designing rare variant association studies. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, E455–E464 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Ross, O. A. et al. Association of LRRK2 exonic variants with susceptibility to Parkinson’s disease: a case–control study. Lancet Neurol. 10, 898–908 (2011).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Nalls, M. A. et al. Large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide association data identifies six new risk loci for Parkinson’s disease. Nat. Genet. 46, 989–993 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Shadrina, M., Dzamko, N. & Rastegar, D. A. Leucine rich repeat kinase 2 and innate immunity. Front. Neurosci. (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ruey-Meei Wu.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wu, R., Farrer, M.J. Parkinson disease risk variants in East Asian populations. Nat Rev Neurol 16, 461–462 (2020).

Download citation


Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing