Successful materials design for bone-tissue engineering requires an understanding of the composition and structure of native bone tissue, as well as appropriate selection of biomimetic natural or tunable synthetic materials (biomaterials), such as polymers, bioceramics, metals and composites. Scalable fabrication technologies that enable control over construct architecture at multiple length scales, including three-dimensional printing and electric-field-assisted techniques, can then be employed to process these biomaterials into suitable forms for bone-tissue engineering. In this Review, we provide an overview of materials-design considerations for bone-tissue-engineering applications in both disease modelling and treatment of injuries and disease in humans. We outline the materials-design pathway from implementation strategy through selection of materials and fabrication methods to evaluation. Finally, we discuss unmet needs and current challenges in the development of ideal materials for bone-tissue regeneration and highlight emerging strategies in the field.
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The authors’ work towards the development of materials for bone-tissue-engineering applications has been supported by the US National Institutes of Health grants P41 EB023833, R01 AR068073 and R01 CA180279 (to A.G.M.). G.L.K. is supported by the Robert and Janice McNair Foundation MD/PhD Student Scholar Program. M.D. is supported by a Rubicon postdoctoral fellowship from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (project no. 019.182EN.004).
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Koons, G.L., Diba, M. & Mikos, A.G. Materials design for bone-tissue engineering. Nat Rev Mater 5, 584–603 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41578-020-0204-2