Measurements of a transversely polarized target were used to probe the spin structure of the proton in the low-energy region where the interactions between the quarks cannot be ignored. These results provide a benchmark for testing our understanding of the strong force.
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Alarcon, J. M., Hagelstein, F., Lensky, V. & Pascalutsa, V. Forward doubly-virtual compton scattering off the nucleon in chiral perturbation theory. II. Spin polarizabilities and moments of polarized structure functions. Phys. Rev. D 102, 114026 (2020). A theoretical calculation of the strong force, which reports structure function moments that are in good agreement with our data.
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Sulkosky, V. et al. Measurement of the generalized spin polarizabilities of the neutron in the low-Q2 region. Nat. Phys. 17, 687–692 (2021). This article presents calculations of spin structure function moments for the neutron that are in tension with the theoretical calculations at low momentum transfer.
Fersch, R. et al. (CLAS Collaboration). Determination of the proton spin structure functions for 0.05 < Q2 < 5 GeV2 using CLAS. Phys. Rev. C 96, 065208 (2017). A paper that summarizes one of the phenomenological models (CLAS) that we compared our data to.
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This is a summary of: Ruth, D. et al. Proton spin structure and generalized polarizabilities in the strong quantum chromodynamics regime. Nat. Phys. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41567-022-01781-y (2022).
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Testing the theory of the strong force by measuring proton spin polarizabilities. Nat. Phys. 18, 1406–1407 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41567-022-01783-w