Generation of narrow-band X-ray free-electron laser via reflection self-seeding

Abstract

X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs)1,2 are widely operated on the basis of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE)3,4, where spontaneous radiation from the electron beam is amplified along the magnetic field in undulators. Despite their high intensities, SASE-XFELs have a broad spectrum due to the stochastic starting-up process5. To narrow the bandwidth, self-seeding has been proposed6,7 and recently demonstrated8,9, where the seed pulse produced by monochromatizing the SASE-XFELs from the first section of undulators using a thin crystal in transmission geometry is amplified in the remaining undulators. Here, we present an efficient self-seeding scheme using the Bragg reflection to produce a seed pulse. We applied this scheme to SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser (SACLA)10, and produced nearly Fourier-transform-limited XFEL pulses that correspond to an increase in spectral brightness by a factor of six compared with SASE-XFELs. This achievement will not only enhance the throughput of present XFEL experiments but also should open new opportunities for X-ray science.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Concept of reflection self-seeding and micro channel-cut crystal monochromator used for generating a seed pulse.
Fig. 2: Single-shot and average spectra of seeded- and SASE-XFEL beams.
Fig. 3: Intensity evolution of seeded- and SASE-XFEL beams along the undulators.
Fig. 4: Statistics of single-shot seeded-XFEL pulse.

Data availability

The data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

References

  1. 1.

    McNeil, B. W. J. & Thompson, N. R. X-ray free-electron lasers. Nat. Photon. 4, 814–821 (2010).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Huang, Z. & Kim, K. J. Review of X-ray free-electron laser theory. Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams 10, 034801 (2007).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Kondratenko, A. M. & Saldin, E. L. Generation of coherent radiation by a relativistic electron beam in an ondulator. Part. Accel. 10, 207–216 (1980).

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Bonifacio, R., Pellegrini, C. & Narducci, L. M. Collective instabilities and high-gain regime in a free-electron laser. Opt. Commun. 50, 373–377 (1984).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Saldin, E. L., Schneidmiller, E. A. & Yurkov, M. V. The Physics of Free Electron Lasers (Springer, Berlin, 1999).

  6. 6.

    Feldhaus, J. et al. Possible application of X-ray optical elements for reducing the spectral bandwidth of an X-ray SASE FEL. Opt. Commun. 140, 341–352 (1997).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Saldin, E. L., Schneidmiller, E. A., Shvyd’ko, Yu. V. & Yurkov, M. V. X-ray FEL with a meV bandwidth. Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 475, 357–362 (2001).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Amann, J. et al. Demonstration of self-seeding in a hard-X-ray free-electron laser. Nat. Photon. 6, 693–698 (2012).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Emma, C. et al. Experimental demonstration of fresh bunch self-seeding in an X-ray free electron laser. Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 154101 (2017).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Ishikawa, T. et al. A compact X-ray free-electron laser emitting in the sub-Ångström region. Nat. Photon. 6, 540–544 (2012).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Inubushi, Y. et al. Determination of the pulse duration of an X-ray free electron laser using highly resolved single-shot spectra. Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 144801 (2012).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Behrens, C. et al. Few-femtosecond time-resolved measurements of X-ray free-electron lasers. Nat. Commun. 5, 3762 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Gutt, C. et al. Single shot spatial and temporal coherence properties of the SLAC linac coherent light source in the hard X-ray regime. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 024801 (2012).

  14. 14.

    Inoue, I. et al. Characterizing transverse coherence of an ultra-intense focused X-ray free-electron laser by an extended Young’s experiment. IUCrJ 2, 620–626 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Tamasaku et al. X-ray two-photon absorption competing against single and sequential multiphoton processes. Nat. Photon. 8, 313–316 (2014).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Inada, T. et al. Search for photon–photon elastic scattering in the X-ray region. Phys. Lett. B 732, 356–359 (2014).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Togashi, T. et al. Extreme ultraviolet free electron laser seeded with high-order harmonic of Ti:sapphire laser. Opt. Express 19, 317–324 (2011).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Lambert, G. et al. Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light. Nat. Phys. 4, 296–300 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Allaria, E. et al. Two-stage seeded soft-X-ray free-electron laser. Nat. Photon. 7, 913–918 (2013).

  20. 20.

    Emma, P. et al. First lasing and operation of an Angstrom wavelength free-electron laser. Nat. Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Lindberg, R. R. & Shvyd’ko, Yu. V. Time dependence of Bragg forward scattering and self-seeding of hard X-ray free-electron lasers. Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams 15, 050706 (2012).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Geloni, G., Kocharyan, V. & Saldin, E. A novel self-seeding scheme for hard X-ray FELs. J. Mod. Opt. 58, 1391–1403 (2011).

  23. 23.

    Yabashi, M. & Tanaka, T. Self-seeded FEL emits hard X-rays. Nat. Photon. 6, 648–649 (2012).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Tono, K. et al. Beamline, experimental stations and photon beam diagnostics for the hard X-ray free electron laser of SACLA. New J. Phys. 15, 083035 (2013).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Osaka, T. et al. A micro channel-cut crystal X-ray monochromator for a self-seeded hard X-ray free-electron laser. Preprint at http://arxiv.org/abs/1811.01860 (2018).

  26. 26.

    Inoue, I. et al. X-ray Hanbury Brown–Twiss interferometry for determination of ultrashort electron-bunch duration. Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 21, 080704 (2018).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Kameshima, T. et al. Development of an X-ray pixel detector with multi-port charge-coupled device for X-ray free-electron laser experiments. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033110 (2014).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Y. Sano, T. Hirano, Y. Morioka, Y. Kohmura and K. Yamauchi for their support in the characterization of the silicon channel-cut crystal monochromator. The authors also thank D. Zhu, A. Robert and Y. Feng for sharing their experiences on transmission self-seeding at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The authors are grateful for the valuable advice from K. Tamasaku. The authors acknowledge T. Hasegawa, S. Tanaka, Y. Tajiri and other members of the SACLA team for help with the accelerator operation and data analysis. This research was partially performed with the approval of the Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI) (Proposal No. 2018A8040).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

M. Yabashi, T.T. and H.T. conceived the idea of self-seeding using a Si channel-cut crystal monochromator. T.O., I.I. and M. Yabashi designed and characterized the Si(111) channel-cut crystal monochromator. I.I. and T.O. designed the commissioning plan with advice from all co-authors. All of the co-authors jointly performed the commissioning of the reflection self-seeding. I.I. and T.O. analysed the experimental data. T.T. and R.K. performed simulation studies. I.I., T.O., T.T. and M. Yabashi co-wrote the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ichiro Inoue.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Notes and Figures.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Inoue, I., Osaka, T., Hara, T. et al. Generation of narrow-band X-ray free-electron laser via reflection self-seeding. Nat. Photonics 13, 319–322 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41566-019-0365-y

Download citation

Further reading

Search

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing