Optical excitation and subsequent decay of graphene plasmons can produce a significant increase in charge-carrier temperature. An efficient method to convert this temperature elevation into electrical signals can enable important mid-infrared applications. However, the modest thermoelectric coefficient and weak temperature dependence of carrier transport in graphene hinder this goal. Here, we demonstrate mid-infrared graphene detectors consisting of arrays of plasmonic resonators interconnected by quasi-one-dimensional nanoribbons. Localized barriers associated with disorder in the nanoribbons produce a dramatic temperature dependence of carrier transport, thus enabling the electrical detection of plasmon decay in the nearby graphene resonators. Our device has a subwavelength footprint of 5 × 5 μm2 and operates at 12.2 μm with an external responsivity of 16 mA W–1 and a low noise-equivalent power of 1.3 nW Hz–1/2 at room temperature. It is fabricated using large-scale graphene and possesses a simple two-terminal geometry, representing an essential step towards the realization of an on-chip graphene mid-infrared detector array.
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We acknowledge the National Science Foundation (CAREER Award ECCS-1552461) for financial support. We also thank the Office of Naval Research (N00014-14-1-0565) for partial support in the photocurrent measurement set-up. We thank X. Li and J. Kong for providing some of the monolayer graphene on copper for this project and IBM Research for providing DLC on silicon substrates. F.J.G.d.A. and R.Y. acknowledge support from the Spanish MINECO (MAT2017-88492-R and SEV2015-0522), the European Commission (Graphene Flagship 696656) and Fundació Privada Cellex.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Guo, Q., Yu, R., Li, C. et al. Efficient electrical detection of mid-infrared graphene plasmons at room temperature. Nature Mater 17, 986–992 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-018-0157-7
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