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An autonomously electrically self-healing liquid metal–elastomer composite for robust soft-matter robotics and electronics

Nature Materialsvolume 17pages618624 (2018) | Download Citation


Large-area stretchable electronics are critical for progress in wearable computing, soft robotics and inflatable structures. Recent efforts have focused on engineering electronics from soft materials—elastomers, polyelectrolyte gels and liquid metal. While these materials enable elastic compliance and deformability, they are vulnerable to tearing, puncture and other mechanical damage modes that cause electrical failure. Here, we introduce a material architecture for soft and highly deformable circuit interconnects that are electromechanically stable under typical loading conditions, while exhibiting uncompromising resilience to mechanical damage. The material is composed of liquid metal droplets suspended in a soft elastomer; when damaged, the droplets rupture to form new connections with neighbours and re-route electrical signals without interruption. Since self-healing occurs spontaneously, these materials do not require manual repair or external heat. We demonstrate this unprecedented electronic robustness in a self-repairing digital counter and self-healing soft robotic quadruped that continue to function after significant damage.

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The authors acknowledge support from the NASA Early Career Faculty Award (NNX14AO49G; Research Collaborator: B. Bluethmann) and AFOSR Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (FA9550-18-1-0566; Program Manager: K. Goretta). M.D.B. also acknowledges support from Iowa State University start up funds. Sensor and mechanical characterization was performed on equipment supported through an Office of Naval Research (ONR) Defense University Research Instrumentation Program (DURIP) (N00014140778; Bioinspired Autonomous Systems; Program Manager: T. McKenna).

Author information

Author notes

  1. These authors contributed equally: Eric J. Markvicka, Michael D. Bartlett.


  1. Integrated Soft Materials Lab, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    • Eric J. Markvicka
    • , Xiaonan Huang
    •  & Carmel Majidi
  2. Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    • Eric J. Markvicka
    •  & Carmel Majidi
  3. Material Science & Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA

    • Michael D. Bartlett
  4. Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    • Xiaonan Huang
    •  & Carmel Majidi


  1. Search for Eric J. Markvicka in:

  2. Search for Michael D. Bartlett in:

  3. Search for Xiaonan Huang in:

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E.J.M., M.D.B., X.H. and C.M. designed the research; E.J.M., M.D.B. and X.H. performed the research; E.J.M., M.D.B., X.H. and C.M. analysed the data; E.J.M., M.D.B. and C.M. wrote the paper.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Carmel Majidi.

Supplementary information

  1. Supplementary Information

    1 supplementary note with 1 reference, Supplementary Figures 1–11

  2. Supplementary Movie 1:

    Electrical activation of LM composite. The video illustrates the electrical activation of the LM composite using a 2D plotter and the ability to pattern geometrically intricate designs

  3. Supplementary Movie 2:

    Elapsed time counter with autonomously self-healing electronics. The video illustrates the ability of the composite to autonomously self-heal under extreme damage without manual intervention, use of external energy sources, or redundant electronics. A complementary illustration is shown with traditional electrical wiring, which immediately fails after damage

  4. Supplementary Movie 3:

    Elapsed time counter with selectively patterned autonomously self-healing electronics. The video demonstrates the ability of the composite to be selectively patterned and autonomously self-heal under extreme damage without unintended electrical shorting, without manual intervention, use of external energy sources, or redundant electronics

  5. Supplementary Movie 4:

    Electrical stability of the autonomously self-healing electronics under normal walking conditions. The video demonstrates the ability of the composite to undergo normal walking conditions for up to 31 steps with 10 footwear variations

  6. Supplementary Movie 5:

    An autonomously self-healing soft robot. The video demonstrates the ability to use the self-healing composite for soft robots that require on-board circuitry that are resistant to damage and can support large bursts of electrical power

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