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The data necessary to reproduce the analyses are provided at https://github.com/versotym/beowulf.
The complete set of analysis code is available at https://github.com/versotym/beowulf, allowing all the analyses to be fully examined.
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Golston, C. in Versatility in Versification (eds Dewey, T. K. & Frog) 105–122 (Peter Lang, 2009).
Fabb, N. What is Poetry?: Language and Memory in the Poems of the World (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2015).
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The authors declare no competing interests.
Peer review information Nature Human Behaviour thanks Michael Drout and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Relative proportions of each pattern, taken over a 200-line rolling window throughout the text. The horizontal line shows the start of the disputed section.
a. Difference between slopes for two samples of Elene is comparable to the difference reported between Genesis A and B in supplementary figure 4 of the original article (sample 1: slope = 31.25; r = 0.9792; sample 2: slope = 22.67; r = 0.9798). b. When Elene, Genesis B and Phoenix are merged together, the quality of linear fit is comparable to that of Beowulf (slope = 28.05; r = 0.9983). Merging together Genesis A and Andreas produces a good quality fit as well (slope = 23.88; r = 0.9972).
Replication of original figure 3 with Christ I and Christ III added to the chart. Despite the fact that Christ I, II, III are claimed to be written by different authors, their mutual correlations do not significantly differ from those of poems signed by Cynewulf (t(7) = 0.19; p = 0.8567). This suggests that the method is sensitive to a common topic and as such cannot be accepted as “further support for unitary composition” of Beowulf.
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Plecháč, P., Cooper, A., Nagy, B. et al. Beowulf single-authorship claim is unsupported. Nat Hum Behav 5, 1481–1483 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-021-01222-5
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