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Specification curve analysis

A Publisher Correction to this article was published on 09 October 2020

This article has been updated


Empirical results hinge on analytical decisions that are defensible, arbitrary and motivated. These decisions probably introduce bias (towards the narrative put forward by the authors), and they certainly involve variability not reflected by standard errors. To address this source of noise and bias, we introduce specification curve analysis, which consists of three steps: (1) identifying the set of theoretically justified, statistically valid and non-redundant specifications; (2) displaying the results graphically, allowing readers to identify consequential specifications decisions; and (3) conducting joint inference across all specifications. We illustrate the use of this technique by applying it to three findings from two different papers, one investigating discrimination based on distinctively Black names, the other investigating the effect of assigning female versus male names to hurricanes. Specification curve analysis reveals that one finding is robust, one is weak and one is not robust at all.

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Fig. 1: Sets of possible specifications as perceived by researchers.
Fig. 2: Descriptive specification curve.
Fig. 3: Observed and expected under-the-null specification curves for the hurricanes and racial discrimination studies.

Data availability

The datasets used for both demonstrations have been deposited at OSF:

Code availability

The code used to generate all figures and calculations, including those in the Supplementary information, has been deposited at OSF:

Change history

  • 09 October 2020

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.


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The authors received no specific funding for this work.

Author information




U.S., J.P.S. and L.D.N. jointly developed the ideas surrounding specification curve analysis and wrote the manuscript. U.S. developed and implemented the inferential approach to specification curve analysis and conducted all analyses.

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Correspondence to Uri Simonsohn.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Peer review information Primary handling editor: Stavroula Kousta

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Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Notes 1–5, Supplementary Figs. 1–10 and references.

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Simonsohn, U., Simmons, J.P. & Nelson, L.D. Specification curve analysis. Nat Hum Behav 4, 1208–1214 (2020).

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