Predicting history


Can events be accurately described as historic at the time they are happening? Claims of this sort are in effect predictions about the evaluations of future historians; that is, that they will regard the events in question as significant. Here we provide empirical evidence in support of earlier philosophical arguments1 that such claims are likely to be spurious and that, conversely, many events that will one day be viewed as historic attract little attention at the time. We introduce a conceptual and methodological framework for applying machine learning prediction models to large corpora of digitized historical archives. We find that although such models can correctly identify some historically important documents, they tend to overpredict historical significance while also failing to identify many documents that will later be deemed important, where both types of error increase monotonically with the number of documents under consideration. On balance, we conclude that historical significance is extremely difficult to predict, consistent with other recent work on intrinsic limits to predictability in complex social systems2,3. However, the results also indicate the feasibility of developing ‘artificial archivists’ to identify potentially historic documents in very large digital corpora.

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Fig. 1: Performance of the PCI model.
Fig. 2: Performance of the SIC model.
Fig. 3: Venn diagram of true and false positives and negatives for the PCI and SIC models.

Data availability

The original data (that is, cable text and metadata) analysed during the current study are available in the History Lab repository ( and US National Archives ( Derivative data (for example, model scores) are available at

Code availability

All code necessary to reproduce our results is available at


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The authors are grateful for support from the team at Columbia University’s History Lab. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation (SBE-1637108). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.

Author information

D.J.W. and M.C. conceived and designed the experiments. J.R., A.S. and R.S. performed the experiments and analysed the data. M.C. and R.S. contributed materials. D.J.W. and M.C. wrote the paper.

Correspondence to Matthew Connelly or Duncan J. Watts.

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Supplementary Figs. 1–4, Supplementary Tables 1–2 and Supplementary Methods.

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