Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Crater population on asteroid (101955) Bennu indicates impact armouring and a young surface

Abstract

The impactor-to-crater size scaling relationships that enable estimates of planetary surface ages rely on an accurate formulation of impactor–target physics. An armouring regime, specific to rubble-pile surfaces, has been proposed to occur when an impactor is comparable in diameter to a target surface particle (for example, a boulder). Armouring is proposed to reduce crater diameter, or prevent crater formation in the asteroid surface, at small crater diameters. Here, using measurements of 1,560 craters on the rubble-pile asteroid (101955) Bennu, we show that the boulder population controls a transition from crater formation to armouring at crater diameters ~2–3 m, below which crater formation in the bulk surface is increasingly rare. By combining estimates of impactor flux with the armouring scaling relationship, we find that Bennu’s crater retention age (surface age derived from crater abundance) spans from 1.6–2.2 Myr for craters less than a few meters to ~10–65 Myr for craters >100 m in diameter, reducing the maximum surface age by a factor of >15 relative to previous estimates. The range of crater retention ages, together with latitudinal variations in large-crater spatial density, indicate that ongoing resurfacing processes render the surface many times younger than the bulk asteroid.

Your institute does not have access to this article

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Examples of small craters on Bennu.
Fig. 2: Bennu’s crater population.
Fig. 3: Fractional area covered by craters versus surface slope for craters ≤20 m diameter, binned into different diameter ranges.
Fig. 4: Observed crater differential SFD compared with model results.

Data availability

OCAMS images from the Approach, Orbital A, and Detailed Survey mission phases64, and OLA data from the Orbital B mission phase65, are available via the Planetary Data System (https://sbn.psi.edu/pds/resource/orex/). The crater measurements (diameter, latitude and longitude of centres) will be available with this publication via FigShare.

Code availability

The SMBT30 is available at http://sbmt.jhuapl.edu/.

References

  1. Melosh, H.J. Impact Cratering, A Geologic Process (Oxford University Press, 1989).

  2. Chapman, C. R. et al. Impact history of Eros: craters and boulders. Icarus 155, 104–118 (2002).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Chapman, C. R., Veverka, J., Belton, M. J. S., Neukum, G. & Morrison, D. Cratering on Gaspra. Icarus 120, 77–86 (1996a).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Chapman, C. R. et al. Cratering on Ida. Icarus 120, 231–245 (1996b).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Geissler, P. et al. Erosion and ejecta reaccretion on 243 Ida and its moon. Icarus 120, 140–157 (1996).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Hirata, N. et al. The spatial distribution of impact craters on Ryugu. Icarus https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2019.113527 (2020).

  7. Hirata, N. et al. A survey of possible impact structures on 25143 Itokawa. Icarus 200, 486–502 (2009).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Chabai, A. J. Influence of Gravitational Fields and Atmospheric Pressures on Scaling of Explosion Craters. Impact and Explosion Cratering (Pergamon, 1977).

  9. Holsapple, K. A. The scaling of impact processes in planetary sciences. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet Sci., 21, 333–373 (1993).

  10. Housen, K. R., Sweet, W. J. & Holsapple, K. A. Impacts into porous asteroids. Icarus 300, 72–96 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Shoemaker E. M. in The Nature of the Lunar Surface (eds Heiss W. N., Menzel D. R. and O’Keefe J. A.) pp. 23–77 (Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1965).

  12. Hartmann, W. K. & Neukum, G. Cratering chronology and the evolution of Mars. Space Sci. Rev. 96, 165–194 (2001).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Holsapple, K. A. & Schmidt, R. M. On the scaling of crater dimensions. II – Impact processes. J. Geophys. Res. v. 87, 1849–1870 (1982).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Scheeres, D. J., Hartzell, C. M., Sanchez, P. & Swift, M. Scaling forces to asteroid surfaces: the role of cohesion. Icarus 210, 968–984 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Durda, D. D. et al. Experimental investigation of the impact fragmentation of blocks embedded in regolith. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 46, 149–155 (2011).

    Google Scholar 

  16. Güttler, C., Hirata, N. & Nakamura, A. M. Cratering experiments on the self armoring of coarse-grained granular targets. Icarus 220, 1040–1049 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Tatsumi, E. & Sugita, S. Cratering efficiency on coarse-grained targets: implications for the dynamical evolution of asteroid 25143 Itokawa. Icarus 300, 227–248 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Barnouin, O. S., Daly, T. R., Cintala, M. J. & Crawford, D. A. Impacts into coarse-grained spheres at moderate impact velocities: implications for cratering on asteroids and planets. Icarus 325, 67–83 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Ballouz, R. L. et al. Bennu’s near-Earth lifetime of 1.75 million years inferred from craters on its boulders. Nature 587, 205–209 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Arakawa, M. et al. An artificial impact on the asteroid (162173) Ryugu formed a crater in the gravity-dominated regime. Science 368, 67–71 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Sutherland, A. J. in Sediment Transport in Gravel Bed Rivers (eds Thorne, C. R., Bathurst, J. C. and Hey, R. D.) pp 243–260 (Wiley, 1987).

  22. Lauretta, D. S., Enos, H. L., Polit, A. T., Roper, H. L., Wolner, C. W. V. in Sample Return Missions (ed. Longobardo, A) ch. 8 (Elsevier, 2021).

  23. Walsh, K. J. et al. Craters, boulders and regolith of (101955) Bennu indicative of an old and dynamic surface. Nat. Geosci. 12, 242–246 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. DellaGiustina, D. N. et al. Variations in color and reflectance on the surface of asteroid (101955) Bennu. Science 370, eabc3660 (2020).

  25. Rizk, B. et al. OCAMS: the OSIRIS-REx camera suite. Space Sci. Rev. 214, 26 (2018).

  26. Seabrook, J. A. et al Global shape modeling using the OSIRIS-REx scanning laser altimeter. Planet. Space. Sci. 177, 104688 (2019).

  27. Barnouin, O. S. et al. Digital terrain mapping by the OSIRIS-REx mission. Planet. Space Sci. 180, 104764 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Daly, M. G. et al. Hemispherical differences in the shape and topography of asteroid (101955) Bennu. Sci. Adv. 6, eabd3649 (2020).

  29. Daly, M. G. et al. The OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter (OLA) investigation and instrument. Space Sci. Rev. 212, 899–924 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Ernst, C.M., Barnouin, O.S., Daly, R.T. and the Small Body Mapping Tool Team. The Small Body Mapping Tool (SBMT) for accessing, visualizing, and analyzing spacecraft data in three dimensions. The Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, contribution no. 2083, id. 1043 (Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), 2018).

  31. Robbins, S. J. et al. The variability of crater identification among expert and community crater analysts. Icarus 234, 109–131 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Richardson, J.E., Steckloff, J.K. and Minton, D.A. Impact-produced seismic shaking and regolith growth on asteroids 433 Eros, 2867 Steins, and 25143 Itokawa. Icarus 347 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2020.113811 (2020).

  33. Nishiyama G. et al. Simulation of seismic wave propagation on asteroid Ryugu induced by the impact experiment of the Hayabusa2 mission: limited mass transport by low yield strength of porous regolith. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 126, e06594 (2021).

  34. Honda, R. et al. Resurfacing processes on asteroid (162173) Ryugu caused by an artificial impact of Hayabusa2’s Small Carry-on Impactor. Icarus 366, 114530 (2021).

  35. Jawin E. R. et al. Global patterns of recent mass movement on asteroid (1011955) Bennu. J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 125, E06475 (2020).

  36. Scheeres, D. J., 40 colleagues. The dynamic geophysical environment of (101955) Bennu based on OSIRIS-REx measurements. Nat. Astron. 3, 352–361 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Daly, T. et al. The morphometry of impact craters on Bennu. Geophys. Res. Lett. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL089672 (2020).

  38. McEwen, A. S. & Bierhaus, E. B. The importance of secondary cratering to age constraints on planetary surfaces. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 34, 540–567 (2006).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Bart G. D. and Melosh H. J. Impact into lunar regolith inhibits high-velocity ejection of large blocks. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 115, E08004 (2010).

  40. Bart, G. D. & Melosh, H. J. Distributions of boulders ejected from lunar craters. Icarus 209, 337–357 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Bierhaus, E. B., Dones, L., Alvarellos, J. L. & Zahnle, K. The role of ejecta in the small crater populations on the mid-sized Saturnian satellites. Icarus 218, 602–621 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. McMahon, J.W. et al. Dynamical evolution of simulated particles ejected from asteroid Bennu. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 125, e06229 (2020).

  43. Bierhaus, E.B. et al. Bennu regolith mobilized by TAGSAM: expectations for the OSIRIS-REx sample collection event and application to understanding naturally ejected particles. Icarus 355, 114142 (2021).

  44. Bierhaus, E. B. et al. Secondary craters and ejecta across the solar system: populations and effects on impact-crater-based chronologies. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 53, 638–671 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Bottke, W. F. et al. Interpreting the cratering histories of Bennu, Ryugu, and other spacecraft-explored asteroids. Astron. J. 160, 14 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. DellaGiustina, D. N. et al. Properties of rubble-pile asteroid (101955) Bennu from OSIRIS-REx imaging and thermal analysis. Nat. Astron. 3, 341–351 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Burke et al. Particle size-frequency distributions of the OSIRIS-REx candidate sample sites on asteroid (101955) Bennu. Remote Sens. 13, 1315 (2021).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Bottke, W. F. et al. In search of the source of asteroid (101955) Bennu: applications of the stochastic YORP model. Icarus 247, 191–217 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Brown, P., Spalding, R. E., ReVelle, D. O., Tagliaferri, E. & Worden, S. P. The flux of small near-Earth objects colliding with the Earth. Nature 420, 294–296 (2002).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Perry, M. E. et al. Low surface strength of the asteroid Bennu inferred from impact ejecta deposit. Nat. Geosci. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-022-00937-y (2022).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Barnouin, O. S., OSIRIS-REx Team et al. Shape of (101955) Bennu indicative of a rubble pile with internal stiffness. Nat. Geosci. 12, 247–252 (2019).

  52. Gladman, B., Michel, P. & Froeschlé, C. The near-Earth object population. Icarus 146, 176–189 (2000).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Walsh, K. J. et al. Likelihood for rubble-pile near-Earth asteroids to be 1st or Nth generation: focus on Bennu and Ryugu. LPSC, LPI contribution no. 2326, id. 2253 (Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), 2020).

  54. Michel, P. et al. Collisional formation of top-shaped asteroids and implications for the origins of Ryugu and Bennu. Nat. Commun. 11, 2665 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Bennett, C. A. et al. A high-resolution global basemap of (101955) Bennu. Icarus https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2020.113690 (2020).

  56. Golish, D. R. et al. Ground and in-flight calibration of the OSIRIS-REx camera suite. Space Sci. Rev. 216, 12 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. DellaGiustina, D. N. et al. Overcoming the challenges associated with image‐based mapping of small bodies in preparation for the OSIRIS‐REx mission to (101955) Bennu. Earth Space Sci. 5, 929–949 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Gay, P.L., Lehan, C. & the CosmoQuest Coders Den Volunteers. Citizen Science Builder. GitHub https://github.com/CosmoQuestX/CSB7.0 (2020).

  59. Scully, J. E. C. Team, C. B. et al. in Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (vol. 44, p. 2860) (2013).

  60. Housen, K. R. & Holsapple, K. A. Ejecta from impact craters. Icarus 211, 856–875 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Chapman, C. R & McKinnon, W. B. in Satellites (eds Burns J. A. & Matthews M. S.) (Univ. of Arizona Press, 1986).

  62. Hartmann, W. K. Martian cratering. Icarus 5, 565–576 (1966).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Bottke, W. F., Nolan, M. C., Greenberg, R. & Kolvoord, R. A. Velocity distributions among colliding asteroids. Icarus 107, 255–268 (1994).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Rizk, B., Drouet d’Aubigny, C., Golish, D., DellaGiustina D. N. & Lauretta D.S., Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx): OSIRIS-REx camera suite (OCAMS) bundle, urn:nasa:pds:orex.ocams (NASA Planetary Data System, Small Bodies Node, https://arcnav.psi.edu/urn:nasa:pds:context:instrument:ocams.orex 2019).

  65. Daly, M.; Barnouin, O.; Espiritu, R.; and Lauretta, D., Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx): OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter Bundle, urn:nasa:pds:orex.ola (NASA Planetary Data System, Small Bodies Node, https://arcnav.psi.edu/urn:nasa:pds:context:instrument:ola.orex 2019).

Download references

Acknowledgements

This material is based upon work supported by NASA under contracts NNG12FD66C and NNM10AA11C issued through the New Frontiers Program. The OLA build and Canadian science support were provided by a contract with the Canadian Space Agency. We are grateful to the entire OSIRIS-REx team for making the encounter with Bennu possible. The efforts of CosmoQuest’s Bennu mappers contributed to the measurement of Bennu’s crater population. A complete list of their names is available at CosmoQuest.org/Bennu/credits. S.R.S. acknowledges support from NASA grant no. 80NSSC18K0226 as part of the NASA OSIRIS-REx Participating Scientist Program. P.M. acknowledges funding from the French space agency CNES, from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement no. 870377 (project NEO-MAPP) and from the Academies of Excellence of the IDEX JEDI of Université Côte d’Azur. M.P. was supported for this research by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) under ASI-INAF agreement no. 2017-37-H.0.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

E.B.B. led data collection, data analysis and writing. D.T. co-led the data collection and contributed to the analysis and writing. R.T.D. developed the DTMs used to analyse the craters and contributed to the analysis and writing. C.A.B. led the OSIRIS-REx CosmoQuest citizen-scientist measurements of impact craters on Bennu and contributed to the writing. O.S.B., K.J.W., R.-L.B., W.F.B., K.N.B., H.C.C., M.G.D. and D.N.D. contributed to data analysis and writing. E.R.J., T.J.M. and J.P.D. contributed to data collection. P.L.G. is lead of the CosmoQuest program and contributed to the writing. J.I.B., J.N., J.P. and S.Stewart provided independent evaluations of CosmoQuest measurements. S.Shwartz, P.M. and M.P. contributed to the writing. D.S.L. is principal investigator of the OSIRIS-REx mission and contributed to the writing.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to E. B. Bierhaus.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Peer review

Peer review information

Nature Geoscience thanks Ralf Jaumann, Masahiko Arakawa and Jennifer Anderson for their contribution to the peer review of this work. Primary handling editors Tamara Goldin and James Super, in collaboration with the Nature Geoscience team.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Extended data

Extended Data Fig. 1 Example identification of a large crater on Bennu.

A 141-m-diameter crater on Bennu, centered at 55.7°N and 62.7°E. White arrows in both frames indicate the crater location. a, PolyCam image 20181202t050321s325_pol_iofl2pan projected onto the shape model. b, The shape model only, colorized by facet radius. The images collected during the spacecraft’s final approach (acquired in early December of 2018), in conjunction with the shape model, were used to identify and measure large craters on Bennu.

Extended Data Fig. 2 Bennu’s crater abundance as a function of latitude and slope.

a, The global SFD of Bennu in differential format. The black data points are all craters, normalized by Bennu’s global surface area. The green points are a population that includes all craters within ±60° latitude, and craters > 5 m diameter for higher latitudes. The difference is a small vertical shift in the differential values for craters < 5 m, the nature of the fishhook shape is unchanged. b, The differential crater populations for three distinct slope/latitude regions (Scheeres et al. 2019) on Bennu: the gray data are for craters < -20°S, the black data are for craters >+20°N, and the blue data are for craters within ±20° latitude. The fishhook shape is present in all three.

Extended Data Fig. 3 A flow chart of our process for generating simulated crater populations for a given modeled age, and definition of the diameter bins used to calculate fits between the observed and modeled crater populations.

a, A flow chart of our process for generating simulated crater populations for a given modeled age: (i) generate an impactor by sampling a diameter-based power-law SFD for either an MBA or NEA flux model; (ii) assign that impactor an impact speed based on the flux model; (iii) generate a boulder by sampling an area-based power-law SFD; (iv) apply TS2018 scaling for that combination of impactor and boulder; (v) repeat steps (i)–(iv) for N impactors predicted for the model age; (vi) repeat the generation of N impactors 100 times to sample the variability at a given age. b,c, Definition of the diameter bins used to calculate fits between the observed and modeled crater populations. The plot (b) labels small diameter bins with a number and large diameter bins with a letter. The table (c) lists the diameter bins used to define the bin sets used to compare observations with the model. For example, the small-crater bin set 5 uses diameter bins 2-8, and the large-crater bin set 4 uses diameter bins A-D. The labels a0 and a1 refer to the largest bin diameters that can occur in the older ages within the simulation data, which are larger than any of the observed craters on Bennu.

Extended Data Fig. 4 Comparison between observed and modeled crater populations for Bennu’s craters and an NEA flux.

a, residuals for all combinations of bin sets and modeled ages for small craters. The residuals are in the same form as the differential SFD, which is N/(dD A), where N is the number of craters in diameter range dD, and A is the surface area used for normalization, so are in units of #/(km km2). There is a consistent minimum across all bin sets. b, the specific residuals for bin set 1, which consists of diameter bin 4 (Extended Data Fig. 4). The black point is the median residual for the 100 runs, the purple line spans the 25-75% range, the light-green line spans the 5-95% range, and the gray line spans the 1-99% range. c, d, e, and f are the same as b for bin sets 2, 5, 8, and 10, respectively. We use the 1-99% minimum residuals across the modeled ages to bound the possible ranges for the small-crater retention age. Bin set 1 establishes the maximum age at 2.2 Myr; bin set 2 establishes the minimum age at 1.6 Myr. g, residuals for all combinations of bin sets and NEA modeled ages for large craters. h, the specific residuals for bin set 2, which consists of diameter bins a0, a1, A and B (Extended Data Fig. 4). i, j, and k are the same as h for bin sets 3, 4, and 5, respectively. We use the 1-99% minimum residuals across the modeled ages to bound the possible ranges for the small-crater retention age.

Extended Data Fig. 5 Crater diameter as a function of impactor diameter for a 30 cm diameter target boulder and 18.5 km/s impact speed.

Unlike strength and gravity scaling, which would be linear in this log-log plot, the TS2018 scaling transitions from an armoring regime at small sizes to a gravity regime at large sizes. There are two curves in the plot, one for the two gravitational end members present on Bennu (pole, light green, and equator, black), the resulting crater diameter is the same until ~200 m diameter. There’s only one candidate impact feature on Bennu larger than this size, and because we calculate our ages against the binned differential data, the small difference in size for this one crater would not change its host bin. Thus, the variation in surface acceleration on Bennu does not change the outcome of our simulations.

Extended Data Fig. 6 Comparison between observed and modeled crater populations for the large craters and an MBA flux.

a, residuals for all combinations of bin sets and modeled ages. The residuals are in the same form as the differential SFD, as described in Extended Data Fig. 5. b, the specific residuals for bin set 2, which consists of diameter bins a0, a1, A and B (Extended Data Fig. 4). Colors are as in Extended Data Fig. 5. c, d, and e are the same as b for bin sets 3, 4, and 5, respectively. We use the 1-99% minimum residuals across the modeled ages to bound the possible ranges for the small-crater retention age. The broad minimum in bin set 2 establishes the maximum age at 65 Myr; the two smallest residuals at 45 Myr and 60 Myr correspond to two cases, one for each of those ages, when there were no modeled craters larger than the observed craters, and the number of modeled craters in bin A match the observations. Bin set 5 establishes the minimum age at 10 Myr. f and g are the differential versions of the observed crater SFD and TS2018 model fits (see also Fig.1 and Fig. 4) for the 10 Myr and 65 Myr (minimum and maximum ages, respectively) with the 99% minimum residuals between observations and model results. The black data are the measured differential crater SFD of Bennu, the purple data are the median results of 100 runs, and the gray band is the 99% range of the 100 runs. Across this age span the range of the 100 modeled outcomes encompasses the variability in density seen in the three largest diameter bins.

Extended Data Fig. 7 Large craters and surface slope on Bennu.

A comparison between the fractional area covered by craters ≥ 20 m diameter (black line, left-hand axis) and the median surface slope (green line, right-hand axis) as a function of latitude. Unlike the small craters, which are not correlated with slope and latitude (Extended Data Figure 2), the abundance of larger craters is correlated with latitude and slope.

Extended Data Fig. 8 Modeled craters for a 2.6 Myr NEA age, and comparison with Ryugu and Itokawa craters.

a, This plot layers additional data sets over the style of presentation in Fig. 4. As in that figure, the black data are the measured differential crater SFD of Bennu, the purple data are the median results of 100 runs for a 2.6 Myr NEA flux model, the gray band represents the 99% range of the simulation results. Here we also include the results of one run, showing a specific case of the TS2018 scaling (green data), 100 Pa strength scaling (blue data), and gravity scaling (orange data); these data illustrate the different resulting crater populations for the three scaling laws given the same impactors. Unlike TS2018 scaling, strength- and gravity scaling continue to produce smaller craters given smaller impactors. However, above the fishhook diameter range, the strength data fall in the range of the TS2018 results, indicating that cratering strengths ≤100 Pa give comparable results to TS2018 for diameters larger than the armoring regime. TS2018 scaling approaches gravity scaling at the largest diameters on Bennu. Given that Bennu has been dynamically decoupled from the main belt for 2.6 Myr, TS2018 indicates that all craters 5 m diameter could have been formed by NEA impactors. b, c, and d are a comparison between Bennu’s crater population (black) with Ryugu (gray) and Itokawa (brown) in cumulative, differential, and R-format, respectively.

Extended Data Table 1 OSIRIS-REx mission data used for analysis
Extended Data Table 2 Symbols, units, and values used for the analysis in this paper

Supplementary information

Supplementary information

Measurements of diameter, latitude and longitude of centres.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bierhaus, E.B., Trang, D., Daly, R.T. et al. Crater population on asteroid (101955) Bennu indicates impact armouring and a young surface. Nat. Geosci. 15, 440–446 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-022-00914-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-022-00914-5

Further reading

Search

Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing