Mars’s seismic activity and noise have been monitored since January 2019 by the seismometer of the InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) lander. At night, Mars is extremely quiet; seismic noise is about 500 times lower than Earth’s microseismic noise at periods between 4 s and 30 s. The recorded seismic noise increases during the day due to ground deformations induced by convective atmospheric vortices and ground-transferred wind-generated lander noise. Here we constrain properties of the crust beneath InSight, using signals from atmospheric vortices and from the hammering of InSight’s Heat Flow and Physical Properties (HP3) instrument, as well as the three largest Marsquakes detected as of September 2019. From receiver function analysis, we infer that the uppermost 8–11 km of the crust is highly altered and/or fractured. We measure the crustal diffusivity and intrinsic attenuation using multiscattering analysis and find that seismic attenuation is about three times larger than on the Moon, which suggests that the crust contains small amounts of volatiles.
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All InSight SEIS data63 used in this paper are available from the IPGP Data Center, IRIS-DMC and NASA PDS; all InSight APSS data are available from NASA PDS (https://pds-geosciences.wustl.edu/missions/insight/index.htm). The data used for Fig. 2 have been obtained from IRIS/DMC for Black Forest Observatory64 and from IPGP Data Center for lunar data (Code XA, http://datacenter.ipgp.fr/data.php). The data displayed in Fig. 5 correspond to the following events. A is a broadband (1–10-Hz) shallow Moonquake waveform recorded on 13 March 1973, at Apollo Station 15; the inferred hypocentre is latitude −84°, longitude −134° (ref. 65). B are S0128 and S0173 events described in the main text. C is a broadband (1–10-Hz) regional crustal earthquake waveform recorded on 28 April 2016, at the broadband station ATE (https://doi.org/10.15778/RESIF.FR); the hypocentre is latitude 46.04°, longitude −1.04°, depth 15 km (BCSF bulletin, http://renass.unistra.fr). D is a broadband (1–10-Hz) waveform recorded on 22 February 2000, at Mount St. Helens station ESD66 (now EDM); the hypocentre is latitude 46.1472°, longitude −122.1457°, depth = 10.4 km (event 10495398, PNSN bulletin, https://pnsn.org). P and S arrival times for S0128a, S0173a and S0235b are from the MQS47 catalogue27. The S–P travel-time difference used in the scattering analysis is 75 s, compatible with the reported27 value of 84 ± 28 s. Subsets for the models proposed for the subsurface and a summary for the upper crust are available (Supplementary Tables 1 and 2 for subsurface, Supplementary Table 3 for upper crust). See Supplementary Discussions 2 and 4 respectively for more details.
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We acknowledge NASA, CNES, their partner agencies and institutions (UKSA, SSO, DLR, JPL, IPGP-CNRS, ETHZ, IC, MPS-MPG) and the flight operations team at JPL, SISMOC, MSDS, IRIS-DMC and PDS for providing SEED SEIS data. The French team acknowledge the French Space Agency CNES, which has supported and funded all SEIS-related contracts and CNES employees, as well as CNRS and the French team universities for personal and infrastructure support. SEIS VBB testing and development have also been supported by SESAME (Ile de France, Université Paris Diderot, IPGP, CNES) in the frameworks Centre de simulation Martien I-07–603 and Pole Terre Planètes 11015893. Additional support was provided by ANR (ANR-14-CE36-0012-02, ANR-19-CE31-0008-08 for SEIS science support and ANR-11-EQPX-0040 for RESIF data access) and for the IPGP team by the UnivEarthS Labex program (ANR-10-LABX-0023) and IDEX Sorbonne Paris Cité (ANR-11-IDEX-0005-0). Regolith stratigraphy inversion used HPC resources of CINES under allocation A0050407341 attributed by GENCI (Grand Equipement National de Calcul Intensif). Research described in this paper was partially carried out by the InSight Project, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. Additional work was supported by NASA’s InSight Participating Scientist Program and LPI (LPI is operated by USRA under a cooperative agreement with the Science Mission Directorate of the NASA). The Swiss coauthors were jointly funded by (1) the Swiss National Science Foundation and French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (SNF-ANR project 15713, Seismology on Mars), (2) the Swiss State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SEFRI project MarsQuake Service—Preparatory Phase) and (3) ETH Research grant ETH-06 17-02. Additional support came from the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre (CSCS) under project s992. The Swiss contribution in implementation of the SEIS electronics was made possible through funding from the federal Swiss Space Office (SSO), the contractual and technical support of the ESA-PRODEX office. SEIS-SP development and delivery were funded by UKSA. The SEIS levelling system development and operation support at MPS was funded by the DLR German Space Agency. B.T. and L. Pan acknowledge funding from European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreements 793824 and 751164. This paper is InSight Contribution 101, LPI contribution 2249 and IPGP Contribution 4099.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Lognonné, P., Banerdt, W.B., Pike, W.T. et al. Constraints on the shallow elastic and anelastic structure of Mars from InSight seismic data. Nat. Geosci. 13, 213–220 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-020-0536-y
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