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Methane seasonal cycle at Gale Crater on Mars consistent with regolith adsorption and diffusion


A strong, repeatable seasonal cycle in the background methane mixing ratio has been observed at the Gale Crater landing site of the Mars Science Laboratory rover with the Tunable Laser Spectrometer of the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument. However, as of yet, no physical process has been proposed that can explain both the timing and amplitude of the observations. Here we show that a one-dimensional numerical model considering adsorption onto and diffusion through the regolith can reproduce the variation, including a phase lag, if the regolith is impregnated with methane from a prior plume or supplied from below by microseepage. Combining the model results with geological constraints, we estimate that the amount of microseepage at Gale is at most 3 × 10−5 tonnes km−2 yr−1. Gale’s unique dynamical environment makes such seeps easier to detect in surface sampling measurements. Over most of the Martian surface, atmospheric mixing is stronger or atmospheric transport more effective, and we expect the amplitude of the seasonal cycle to be smaller for the same strength of seep.

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Fig. 1: Full diffusive–adsorptive model result for methane in the near-surface atmosphere33 at Gale.
Fig. 2: An example of the sensitivity analysis showing the variation in the quality of fit with changing values of ΔH and γ/η ratio.

Code availability

The code used to generate the figures shown in this paper and in the Supplementary Information are available at and there are no restrictions on availability.

Data availability

All data used in this study, REMS and SAM-TLS values, are available on the Planetary Data System ( For methane data, the reader is further directed to ref. 4 where reduced tabulated values are available. All other data used in the production of this paper are listed in the text, and the figures were generated from this data using the code described under Code availability.


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J.E.M. and C.L.S. acknowledge funding for this work provided by the Canadian Space Agency’s Mars Science Laboratory Participating Scientist Program.

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Authors and Affiliations



J.E.M. led all aspects of the manuscript including writing, code development and simulation. All members of the team participated in the writing and revision of the manuscript and in discussion about the scientific interpretation of the results. C.L.S. performed the sensitivity analysis. R.V.G. and P.-Y.M. provided valuable insights into the absorption of methane on mineral grains. G.M.M. provided valuable insights on the REMS dataset. C.E.N. provided valuable insights on numerical modelling of the martian atmosphere. S.K.A., P.R.M. and C.R.W. provided valuable insights on the SAM-TLS methane measurements.

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Correspondence to John E. Moores.

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Moores, J.E., Gough, R.V., Martinez, G.M. et al. Methane seasonal cycle at Gale Crater on Mars consistent with regolith adsorption and diffusion. Nat. Geosci. 12, 321–325 (2019).

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