Understanding the reason(s) behind changes in human mobility strategies through space and time is a major challenge in palaeoanthropology. Most of the time this is due to the lack of suitable temporal sequences of human skeletal specimens during critical climatic or cultural shifts. Here, we present temporal variations in the Sr isotope composition of 14 human deciduous teeth and the N and C stable isotope ratios of four human remains from the Grotta Paglicci site (Apulia, southern Italy). The specimens were recovered from the Gravettian and Epigravettian layers, across the Last Glacial Maximum, and dated between 31210–33103 and 18334–19860 yr cal bp (2σ). The two groups of individuals exhibit different 87Sr/86Sr ratios and, while the Gravettians are similar to the local macro-fauna in terms of Sr isotopic signal, the Epigravettians are shifted towards higher radiogenic Sr ratios. These data, together with stable isotopes, can be explained by the adoption of different mobility strategies between the two groups, with the Gravettians exploiting logistical mobility strategies and the Epigravettians applying residential mobility.
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This project was funded by the European Research Council under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme (grant agreement No. 724046—SUCCESS, awarded to S.B.). The Radiogenic Isotope Laboratory of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia was funded through a grant from Programma Giovani Ricercatori Rita Levi Montalcini (to A.C.). We thank Soprintendenza Archeologia, Belle Arti e Paesaggio per le Province di Barletta-Andria-Trani e Foggia for supporting researches at Grotta Paglicci, and A. Palma di Cesnola for his scientific rigour in carrying out studies at Grotta Paglicci. The authors acknowledge S. Conti for providing geological maps of the Apulia region and A. Florenzano for valuable discussions of the paleoclimate record.