A pivotal year for Bolivian conservation policy

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As Bolivia approaches presidential elections in October 2019, the country’s environmental leadership is at stake. We discuss urgent challenges and opportunities for reconciling conservation and societal needs in this mega-diverse country.

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Fig. 1: Policies that represent advances (left) and setbacks (right) for nature conservation in Bolivia since President Evo Morales’s inception in 2006.
Fig. 2: Bolivian National Protected areas (in gray) and their overlap with mega-dams, oil and gas blocks, main roads and deforestation.

www.protectedplanet.net (protected areas); http://geo.gob.bo (oil blocks, rivers, roads and forest extent and loss by 2000); ref. 4 (dams); https://earthenginepartners.appspot.com/science-2013-global-forest (forest change in 2000–2017)


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We thank T. Kuemmerle, J. Geldman and A. Ghodoussi for helpful discussions and comments on previous versions of the manuscript, as well as A. Balmford, V. Reyes-García and R. Rocha for enlightening discussions about conservation policies. A. Gyawali provided cartographic assistance. A.R.-M. acknowledges financial support from the German Research Foundation (grant no. KU 2458/5-1) and the German Ministry of Education and Research (grant no. 031B0034A), and A.F.-L. acknowledges financial support from the Academy of Finland (grant agreement no. 311176).

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Correspondence to Alfredo Romero-Muñoz.

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