Abstract

The distributions of amphibians, birds and mammals have underpinned global and local conservation priorities, and have been fundamental to our understanding of the determinants of global biodiversity. In contrast, the global distributions of reptiles, representing a third of terrestrial vertebrate diversity, have been unavailable. This prevented the incorporation of reptiles into conservation planning and biased our understanding of the underlying processes governing global vertebrate biodiversity. Here, we present and analyse the global distribution of 10,064 reptile species (99% of extant terrestrial species). We show that richness patterns of the other three tetrapod classes are good spatial surrogates for species richness of all reptiles combined and of snakes, but characterize diversity patterns of lizards and turtles poorly. Hotspots of total and endemic lizard richness overlap very little with those of other taxa. Moreover, existing protected areas, sites of biodiversity significance and global conservation schemes represent birds and mammals better than reptiles. We show that additional conservation actions are needed to effectively protect reptiles, particularly lizards and turtles. Adding reptile knowledge to a global complementarity conservation priority scheme identifies many locations that consequently become important. Notably, investing resources in some of the world’s arid, grassland and savannah habitats might be necessary to represent all terrestrial vertebrates efficiently.

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Change history

  • Correction 05 December 2017

    In the version of this Article originally published, grant no. 2015/20215-7 for C.N. was omitted from the Acknowledgements section. This has now been corrected in all versions of the Article.

  • Correction 18 October 2017

    In this Article originally published, owing to a technical error, the author ‘Laurent Chirio’ was mistakenly designated as a corresponding author in the HTML version, the PDF was correct. This error has now been corrected in the HTML version. Further, in Supplementary Table 3, the authors misspelt the surname of ‘Danny Meirte’; this file has now been replaced.

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Acknowledgements

We thank T. Burbidge, T. Dowe, S. Huang, S. Khela, H.-Y. Lee, K. Tamar, J. Usherwood, M. Hopkins and S. Halle for help in digitizing reptile ranges. We thank librarians and colleagues for help in obtaining relevant literature, G. Bunting and M. Balman for providing IBA polygons and bird species distribution maps from BirdLife International, as well as S. Butchart for insightful comments. A.B. thanks the Gerald M. Lemole endowed Chair funds. G.R.C. thanks CAPES - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico – CNPq and Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Distrito Federal – FAPDF for financial support. I.D. was supported by a Niche Research Grant Scheme, NRGS/1087/2–13(01). C.N. and M.M. were supported by São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP no. 2011/50206-9, no. 2012/19858-2 and no. 2015/20215-7 to C.N.). M.M. acknowledges a research fellowship from CNPq. O.T.C. acknowledges support from SENESCYT. R.G. acknowledges the John Fell Fund of the University of Oxford for support. A.A. and S.M. acknowledge support from a BSF grant no. 2012143.

Author information

Author notes

    • Uri Roll

    Present address: Mitrani Department of Desert Ecology, The Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University, Midreshet Ben-Gurion, 8499000, Israel

  1. Laurent Chirio is unaffiliated:

  2. U.R., A.F. and M.N. contributed equally to this work.

  3. S.M. and R.G. jointly supervised this work.

Affiliations

  1. School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3QY, UK

    • Uri Roll
    •  & Richard Grenyer
  2. Department of Zoology, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, 6997801, Israel

    • Anat Feldman
    • , Maria Novosolov
    • , Yuval Itescu
    • , Amir Lewin
    • , Erez Maza
    • , Oliver J. S. Tallowin
    • , Enav Vidan
    •  & Shai Meiri
  3. Hawaii Biological Survey, 4 Bishop Museum, Honolulu, HI, 96817, USA

    • Allen Allison
  4. Department of Biology, Villanova University, Villanova, PA, 19085, USA

    • Aaron M. Bauer
    •  & Philipp Wagner
  5. Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire, SL5 7PY, UK

    • Rodolphe Bernard
    •  & C. David L. Orme
  6. Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, London, NW1 4RY, UK

    • Monika Böhm
  7. School of Basic Sciences, Physiology Sciences Department, Universidad del Valle, Cali, 760043, Colombia

    • Fernando Castro-Herrera
  8. Centre for Biodiversity & Environment Research, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT, UK

    • Ben Collen
  9. Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, Distrito Federal, 70910-900, Brazil

    • Guarino R. Colli
  10. Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, The Rappaport Family Institute for Research in the Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 31096, Israel

    • Lital Dabool
  11. Institute of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, 94300, Malaysia

    • Indraneil Das
  12. Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, 32816, USA

    • Tiffany M. Doan
  13. Department of Biology, La Sierra University, Riverside, CA, 92505, USA

    • Lee L. Grismer
  14. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi/CZO, Caixa Postal 399, Belém, Pará, 66017–970, Brazil

    • Marinus Hoogmoed
  15. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann-Arbor, MI, 48109-1048, USA

    • Fred Kraus
  16. Mosaic (Environment, Health, Data, Technology), Yaoundé, Cameroon

    • Matthew LeBreton
  17. Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, Sao Paulo, 05508-090, Brazil

    • Marcio Martins
    •  & Cristiano de C. Nogueira
  18. Royal Museum for Central Africa, Leuvensesteenweg 13, Tervuren, 3080, Belgium

    • Danny Meirte
  19. Joint Experimental Molecular Unit, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels, B-1000, Belgium

    • Zoltán T. Nagy
  20. Département des Vertébrés Récents, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels, B-1000, Belgium

    • Olivier S. G. Pauwels
  21. School of Life Sciences, Joseph Banks Laboratories, University of Lincoln, Brayford Campus, Lincoln, LN6 7DL, UK

    • Daniel Pincheira-Donoso
  22. NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarch Gifford, Wallingford, OX10 8BB, UK

    • Gary D. Powney
  23. Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Carmagnola, Turin, I-10022, Italy

    • Roberto Sindaco
  24. Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Apartado 17-01-2184, Quito, 170525, Ecuador

    • Omar Torres-Carvajal
  25. Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Laboratoire de Paludologie et Zoologie Médicale, UMR MIVEGEC, Dakar, Senegal

    • Jean-François Trape
  26. Center for the Study of Biological Complexity, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, 23284, USA

    • Peter Uetz
  27. Zoologische Staatssammlung München, München, D-81247, Germany

    • Philipp Wagner
  28. Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, 610041, China

    • Yuezhao Wang
  29. Steinhardt Museum of Natural History, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, 6997801, Israel

    • Shai Meiri

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Contributions

A.M.B., R.G., S.M., U.R. conceived the study. R.G., C.D.L.O., U.R. designed the analyses. U.R. conducted the analyses. A.F., S.M., M.N., U.R. complied, designed and curated the dataset. R.G., S.M., U.R. wrote the paper. A.A., A.M.B., M.B., R.B., B.C., F.C.H., L.C., G.R.C., L.D., I.D., T.M.D., A.F., L.L.G., M.H., Y.I., F.K., A.L., M.L., E.M., D.M., M.M., S.M., C.C.N., M.N., Z.T.N., G.P., O.S.G.P., D.P.D., U.R., R.S., O.J.S.T., O.T.C., J.F.T., E.V., P.U., P.W., Y.W. provided, collated and verified underlying data. All authors read and commented on the manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shai Meiri.

Electronic supplementary material

  1. Supplementary Information

    Supplementary Methods, Supplementary Tables 1–4, Supplementary Figures 1–8, Supplementary References and descriptions of Supplementary Tables 3–4

  2. Supplementary Table 3

    Full list of sources per species and details for each source.

  3. Supplementary Table 4

    List of species found in the March 2015 version of the Reptile Database (http://www.reptile-database.org/data/reptile_checklist_2015_03.xls.zip) for which we did not present or analyse distributions.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-017-0332-2