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Climate-conscious consumers and the buy, bank, burn program

Manipulation of European Union emission trading systems (ETS) by the buy, bank, burn program compensates unregulated emissions while regulated sectors carry a large part of the burden. This distorts the balance between regulated firms and non-regulated projects, so parties outside the EU ETS can be virtuous at the cost of others.

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Journal peer review information: Nature Climate Change thanks Grischa Perino and other anonymous reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.


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The authors thank A. Callahan-Brandt for textual corrections. R.G. thanks the Research Council of Norway for financial support.

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Competing interests

Reyer Gerlagh is a member of the Advisory Council (RVA) of Carbonkiller, the Dutch allowance burning program.

Correspondence to Roweno J. R. K. Heijmans.

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