Climate change and interconnected risks to sustainable development in the Mediterranean


Recent accelerated climate change has exacerbated existing environmental problems in the Mediterranean Basin that are caused by the combination of changes in land use, increasing pollution and declining biodiversity. For five broad and interconnected impact domains (water, ecosystems, food, health and security), current change and future scenarios consistently point to significant and increasing risks during the coming decades. Policies for the sustainable development of Mediterranean countries need to mitigate these risks and consider adaptation options, but currently lack adequate information — particularly for the most vulnerable southern Mediterranean societies, where fewer systematic observations schemes and impact models are based. A dedicated effort to synthesize existing scientific knowledge across disciplines is underway and aims to provide a better understanding of the combined risks posed.

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Fig. 1: Historic warming of the atmosphere globally and in the Mediterranean Basin.
Fig. 2: Evolution of the Mediterranean regional climate towards warmer and drier conditions.
Fig. 3: Annual natural renewable water resources in the main Mediterranean watersheds.


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This work has benefited from discussions with V. Alary (CIRAD, France), W.W.L. Cheung (Univ. British Columbia, Canada), K. Radunsky (Umweltbundesamt, Austria), J. Le Tellier (Plan Bleu, France), C. Webster (MedPAN, France) and many participants at five MedECC workshops between October 2016 and April 2018. Coordination was supported by the Laboratory of Excellence OT-Med (A*MIdex project no. 11-IDEX-0001-02).

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W.C. and J.G. developed the assessment protocol and convened the author team. All authors contributed sectoral knowledge and text. W.C. wrote the paper.

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Correspondence to Wolfgang Cramer.

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Cramer, W., Guiot, J., Fader, M. et al. Climate change and interconnected risks to sustainable development in the Mediterranean. Nature Clim Change 8, 972–980 (2018).

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