Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

The discovery of cosmic fullerenes

In 2010, the Spitzer Space Telescope detected evidence of a complex form of carbon that had never been seen in extraterrestrial environments. Jan Cami recounts the discovery of buckminsterfullerene in space.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    Kroto, H. W., Heath, J. R., Obrien, S. C., Curl, R. F. & Smalley, R. E. Nature 318, 162–163 (1985).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Snow, T. P. & Seab, C. G. Astron. Astrophys. 213, 291–294 (1989).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Somerville, W. B. & Bellis, J. G. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 240, 41P–46P (1989).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Herbig, G. H. Astrophys. J. 542, 334–343 (2000).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Foing, B. H. & Ehrenfreund, P. Nature 369, 296 (1994).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Foing, B. H. & Ehrenfreund, P. Astron. Astrophys. 317, L59–L62 (1997).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Kessler, M. F. et al. Astron. Astrophys. 315, L27–L31 (1996).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    de Graauw, T. et al. Astron. Astrophys. 315, L49–L54 (1996).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Cami, J. Molecular Gas and Dust Around Evolved Stars. PhD thesis, Univ. Amsterdam (2002).

  10. 10.

    Clayton, G. C. et al. Astron. J. 109, 2096–2103 (1995).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Kwok, S., Volk, K. & Hrivnak, B. J. Astron. Astrophys. 350, L35–L38 (1999).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Moutou, C., Sellgren, K., Verstraete, L. & Léger, A. Astron. Astrophys. 347, 949–956 (1999).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Cami, J. & Yamamura, I. Astron. Astrophys. 367, L1–L4 (2001).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Dominik, C., Dullemond, C. P., Cami, J. & van Winckel, H. Astron. Astrophys. 397, 595–609 (2003).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Malek, S. E. & Cami, J. Astrophys. J. 780, 41 (2014).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Gielen, C., Cami, J., Bouwman, J., Peeters, E. & Min, M. Astron. Astrophys. 536, A54 (2011).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Werner, M. W. et al. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 154, 309–314 (2004).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Peeters, E., Mattioda, A. L., Hudgins, D. M. & Allamandola, L. J. Astrophys. J. Lett. 617, L65–L68 (2004).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Boersma, C. et al. Astron. Astrophys. 511, A32 (2010).

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Sellgren, K., Uchida, K. I. & Werner, M. W. Astrophys. J. 659, 1338–1351 (2007).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Cami, J., van Malderen, R. & Markwick, A. J. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 187, 409–415 (2010).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Bernard-Salas, J. et al. Astrophys. J. Lett. 652, L29–L32 (2006).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Perea-Calderón, J. V., García-Hernández, D. A., García-Lario, P., Szczerba, R. & Bobrowsky, M. Astron. Astrophys. 495, L5–L8 (2009).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Houck, J. R. et al. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 154, 18–24 (2004).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Werner, M. W. et al. The Spitzer Space Telescope Mission. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 154, 1–9 (2004).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Frum, C. I. et al. Chem. Phys. Lett. 176, 504–508 (1991).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Bauschlicher, C. W. et al. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 189, 341–351 (2010).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Jäger, C., Huisken, F., Mutschke, H., Jansa, I. L. & Henning, T. Astrophys. J. 696, 706–712 (2009).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Wang, X. K. et al. J. Mater. Res. 10, 1977–1983 (1995).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    García-Hernández, D. A. et al. Astrophys. J. Lett. 724, L39–L43 (2010).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Sellgren, K. et al. Astrophys. J. Lett. 722, L54–L57 (2010).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Walker, G. A. H., Bohlender, D. A., Maier, J. P. & Campbell, E. K. Astrophys. J. Lett. 812, L8 (2015).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Galazutdinov, G. A., Shimansky, V. V., Bondar, A., Valyavin, G. & Krełowski, J. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 465, 3956–3964 (2017).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Kuhn, M. et al. Nat. Commun. 7, 13550 (2016).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Spieler, S. et al. Astrophys. J. 846, 168 (2017).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Walker, G. A. H., Campbell, E. K., Maier, J. P., Bohlender, D. & Malo, L. Astrophys. J. 831, 130 (2016).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Walker, G. A. H., Campbell, E. K., Maier, J. P. & Bohlender, D. Astrophys. J. 843, 56 (2017).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Lallement, R. et al. Astron. Astrophys. 614, A28 (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Cordiner, M. A. et al. Astrophys. J. Lett. 843, L2 (2017).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Cordiner, M. A. et al. Astrophys. J. Lett. 875, L28 (2019).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Lykhin, A., Ahmadvand, S. & Varganov, S. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 10, 115–120 (2019).

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Cami, J., Bernard-Salas, J., Peeters, E. & Malek, S. E. Science 329, 1180–1182 (2010).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    García-Hernández, D. A. et al. Astrophys. J. Lett. 737, L30 (2011).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Otsuka, M., Kemper, F., Cami, J., Peeters, E. & Bernard-Salas, J. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2577–2593 (2014).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Otsuka, M. et al. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 462, 12–34 (2016).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Otsuka, M. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 482, 2354–2373 (2019).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Zhang, Y. & Kwok, S. Astrophys. J. 730, 126 (2011).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    García-Hernández, D. A., Kameswara Rao, N. & Lambert, D. L. Astrophys. J. 729, 126 (2011).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Clayton, G. C. et al. Astron. J. 142, 54 (2011).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Evans, A. et al. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 421, L92–L96 (2012).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Berné, O., Cox, N. L. J., Mulas, G. & Joblin, C. Astron. Astrophys. 605, L1 (2017).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Roberts, K. R. G., Smith, K. T. & Sarre, P. J. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 421, 3277–3285 (2012).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Boersma, C., Rubin, R. H. & Allamandola, L. J. Astrophys. J. 753, 168 (2012).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Peeters, E., Tielens, A. G. G. M., Allamandola, L. J. & Wolfire, M. G. Astrophys. J. 747, 44 (2012).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Castellanos, P., Berné, O., Sheffer, Y., Wolfire, M. G. & Tielens, A. G. G. M. Astrophys. J. 794, 83 (2014).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Cami, J. in The Diffuse Interstellar Bands (eds. Cami, J. & Cox, N. L. J.) 370–374 (IAU, 2014).

  57. 57.

    Palotás, J., Martens, J., Berden, G. & Oomens, J. Nat. Astron. 4, 240–245 (2020).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Dunk, P. W. et al. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, 18081–18086 (2013).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Berné, O. & Tielens, A. G. G. M. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 109, 401–406 (2012).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Zhen, J., Castellanos, P., Paardekooper, D. M., Linnartz, H. & Tielens, A. G. G. M. Astrophys. J. Lett. 797, L30 (2014).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Cami, J., Peeters, E., Bernard-Salas, J., Doppmann, G. & De Buizer, J. Galaxies 6, 101 (2018).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Tielens, A. G. G. M. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 46, 289–337 (2008).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Candian, A. et al. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 485, 1137–1146 (2019).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Paul Woods.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Woods, P. The discovery of cosmic fullerenes. Nat Astron 4, 299–305 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-020-1076-5

Download citation

Further reading

Search

Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing