Dark matter is currently one of the main mysteries of the Universe. There is much strong indirect evidence that supports its existence, but there is yet no sign of a direct detection1,2,3. Moreover, at the scale of galaxies, there is tension between the theoretically expected dark matter distribution and its indirectly observed distribution4,5,6,7. Therefore, phenomena associated with dark matter have a chance of serving as a window towards new physics. The radial acceleration relation8,9 confirms that a non-trivial acceleration scale a0 can be found from the internal dynamics of several galaxies. The existence of such a scale is not obvious as far as the standard cosmological model is concerned10,11, and it has been interpreted as a possible sign of modified gravity12,13. Here, we consider 193 high-quality disk galaxies and, using Bayesian inference, show that the probability of existence of a fundamental acceleration is essentially 0: the null hypothesis is rejected at more than 10σ. We conclude that a0 is of emergent nature. In particular, the modified Newtonian dynamics theory14,15,16,17—a well-known alternative to dark matter based on the existence of a fundamental acceleration scale—or any other theory that behaves like it at galactic scales, is ruled out as a fundamental theory for galaxies at more than 10σ.
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We thank S. McGaugh for clarifications regarding the SPARC sample and comments on a previous version of this paper. This work made use of SPARC (Spitzer Photometry & Accurate Rotation Curves) and of THINGS (The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey). D.C.R. and V.M. thank CNPq and FAPES for partial financial support. A.d.P. was supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and its President’s International Fellowship Initiative (grant number 2017 VMA0044). Z.D. thanks the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology of Iran for financial support.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Rodrigues, D.C., Marra, V., del Popolo, A. et al. Absence of a fundamental acceleration scale in galaxies. Nat Astron 2, 668–672 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-018-0498-9
Physics of the Dark Universe (2021)
Chinese Physics C (2021)
Astronomy & Astrophysics (2021)
Physica Scripta (2021)
The Astrophysical Journal (2021)