Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Bilateral orchiectomy deteriorates the structure and function of seminal vesicles in a rat model


The effects of hormone levels on ejaculation are known. In addition to thyroid hormone levels, testosterone levels are also associated with ejaculation, but no consensus has been reached on this issue. Thus, we investigated the effect of decreased testosterone levels due to bilateral orchiectomy on the chemical stimulation-induced ejaculation phases in rats. Twenty-one male Wistar rats were randomized into the orchiectomy, sham, and control groups, with seven rats in each group. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed. The ejaculation parameters were evaluated 5 days after the sham and bilateral orchiectomy operations and the waiting period in the control group. The seminal vesicle (SV) phasic contraction number and increase in basal pressure amplitude were significantly lower in the orchiectomy group (6.9 ± 3.3 and 0.6 ± 0.3 mmHg) than in the sham and control groups (11.2 ± 1.7 and 1.0 ± 0.4 mmHg, and 14.5 ± 6.6 and 1.1 ± 0.2 mmHg, respectively; p = 0.016 and p = 0.03, respectively). The interval between the SV contractions was significantly longer in the orchiectomy group (166.2 ± 104.3 s) than in the sham and control groups (76.0 ± 15.5 s and 63.1 ± 31.1 s, respectively; p = 0.014 (between groups), orchiectomy vs sham p = 0.040 and orchiectomy vs control p = 0.018). The SV weights of the rats were significantly lower in the orchiectomy group (0.14 ± 0.01 g) than in the sham and control groups (0.37 ± 0.05 g and 0.48 ± 0.03 g respectively; p < 0.0001 (between groups), orchiectomy vs sham p < 0.0001 and orchiectomy vs control p < 0.0001). The groups showed no significant differences in ejaculation time, SV basal pressure, SV maximum amplitude, and bulbospongiosus muscle contraction electromyographic activity. Our results partially clarified the relationship between decreased testosterone levels and ejaculation. Decreased testosterone levels caused statistically significant changes in SV functions and affected the ejaculation emission phase.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Get just this article for as long as you need it


Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Fig. 1: Seminal vesicle cannulization.
Fig. 2: Ejaculation and placement of a electrode for electromyographic measurement of bulbospongiosus muscles.
Fig. 3: Sample of seminal vesicle phasic contractions and bulbospongiosus electromyographic activity.
Fig. 4: Seminal Vesicles of Control&Sham&Orchiectomy groups.

Data availability

The datasets generated and analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


  1. Serefoglu EC, Yaman O, Cayan S, Asci R, Orhan I, Usta MF, et al. Prevalence of the complaint of ejaculating prematurely and the four premature ejaculation syndromes: results from the Turkish Society of Andrology Sexual Health Survey. J Sex Med. 2011;8:540–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Waldinger MD, Schweitzer DH. The use of old and recent DSM definitions of premature ejaculation in observational studies: a contribution to the present debate for a new classification of PE in the DSM-V. J Sex Med. 2008;5:1079–87.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Giuliano F, Clément P. Serotonin and premature ejaculation: from physiology to patient management. Eur Urol. 2006;50:454–66.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Alizadeh F, Rangzan N, Mohseni M, Rangzan N. Serum testosterone and gonadotropins levels in patients with premature ejaculation: a comparison with normal men. Adv Biomed Res. 2014;3:6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Corona G, Jannini EA, Mannucci E, Fisher AD, Lotti F, Petrone L, et al. Different testosterone levels are associated with ejaculatory dysfunction. J Sex Med. 2008;5:1991–8.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Deng B, Bondarenko T, Pakhomov O. Changes in sexual behavior of orchidectomized rats under influence of allotransplantation of testicular interstitial cell suspension. Cell Transplant. 2017;26:795–803.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Lin BJT, Chen K-K, Chen M-T, Chang LS. The time for serum testosterone to reach castrate level after bilateral orchiectomy or oral estrogen in the management of metastatic prostatic cancer. Urology. 1994;43:834–7.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Ongün Ş, Acar S, Koca P, Uzut M, Esen AA, Durmus N, et al. Can botulinum-A toxin be used to delay ejaculation: results of an ejaculation model in male rats. J Sex Med. 2019;16:1338–43.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Clément P, Kia HK, Droupy S, Bernabe J, Alexandre L, Denys P, et al. Role of peripheral innervation in p-chloroamphetamine-induced ejaculation in anesthetized rats. J Androl. 2006;27:381–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Cihan A, Demir O, Demir T, Aslan G, Comlekci A, Esen A. The relationship between premature ejaculation and hyperthyroidism. J Urol. 2009;181:1273–80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Cohen PG. The association of premature ejaculation and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. J Sex Marital Ther. 1997;23:208–11.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Corona G, Jannini EA, Lotti F, Boddi V, Vita GD, Forti G, et al. Premature and delayed ejaculation: two ends of a single continuum influenced by hormonal milieu. Int J Androl. 2011;34:41–8.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Tahtalı IN. Is testosterone replacement an effective treatment of secondary premature ejaculation? Andrologia. 2020;52:e13452.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Culha MG, Tuken M, Gonultas S, Cakir OO, Serefoglu EC. Frequency of etiological factors among patients with acquired premature ejaculation: prospective, observational, single-center study. Int J Impot Res. 2020;32:352–7.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Corona G, Mannucci E, Petrone L, Fisher AD, Balercia G, Scisciolo G, et al. Psychobiological correlates of delayed ejaculation in male patients with sexual dysfunctions. J Androl. 2006;27:453–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Wu F, Chen T, Mao S, Jiang H, Ding Q, Xu G. Levels of estradiol and testosterone are altered in Chinese men with sexual dysfunction. Andrology. 2016;4:932–8.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Morgentaler A, Polzer P, Althof S, Bolyakov A, Donatucci C, Ni X, et al. Delayed ejaculation and associated complaints: relationship to ejaculation times and serum testosterone levels. J Sex Med. 2017;14:1116–24.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Abu El-Hamd M, Farah A. Possible role of serum testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with premature ejaculation. Andrologia. 2017;50:e12808.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Paduch DA, Polzer PK, Ni X, Basaria S. Testosterone replacement in androgen-deficient men with ejaculatory dysfunction: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100:2956–62.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Keleta YB, Lumia AR, Anderson GM, McGinnis MY. Behavioral effects of pubertal anabolic androgenic steroid exposure in male rats with low serotonin. Brain Res. 2007;9:129–38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Kim JK, Han WH, Lee MY, Myung CS, Kim SC, Kim MK. Testosterone relaxes rabbit seminal vesicle by calcium channel inhibition. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;12:73–7.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Giuliano F, Clement P. Neuroanatomy and physiology of ejaculation. Annu Rev Sex Res. 2005;16:190–216.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Hamill RW, Schroeder B. Hormonal regulation of adult sympathetic neurons: the effects of castration on neuropeptide Y, norepinephrine, and tyrosine hydroxylase activity. J Neurobiol. 1990;21:731–42.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Maggi M, Heiselman D, Knorr J, Iyengar S, Paduch DA, Donatucci CF. Impact of testosterone solution 2% on ejaculatory dysfunction in hypogonadal men. J Sex Med. 2016;13:1220–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. de Paiva Gonçalves V, Cabrera-Ortega AA, Carvalho JS, Ramadan D, Spolidorio LC. Physiological testosterone replacement effects on male aged rats with orchiectomy-induced osteoporosis in advanced stage: a tomographic and biomechanical pilot study. Aging Male. 2021;24:139–47.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This study was funded by Dokuz Eylul University under Project No. 2018.KB.SAG.065.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



Conceptualization: SO, E Sarikaya, AS. Experiment execution: SO, E Sarikaya, E Sel, AS. Formal analysis: SO, AS, ND, OG. Methodology: SO, OD, AAE. Funding acquisition: ND, E Sel, OG. Writing–original draft: SO, ND, AS. Writing–review & editing: SO, OD, AAE.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sakir Ongun.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ongun, S., Sarikaya, E., Sarac, A. et al. Bilateral orchiectomy deteriorates the structure and function of seminal vesicles in a rat model. Int J Impot Res (2023).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI:

This article is cited by


Quick links