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Interruption of autoimmunity for thyroid eye disease: B-cell and T-cell strategy

Eyevolume 33pages191199 (2019) | Download Citation


Recent new insights into the molecular basis of thyroid eye disease have led to the use of more specific therapies such as monoclonal antibodies This review explores the traditional immunosuppressant therapy for TED, highlighting the basis for emergent recent medications, possible treatment options and, eventually possible new general recommendation for management of TED. Data has been retrieved from the literature searching on Pubmed. Steroid therapy remains the first line therapy for moderate/severe and severe vision threatening TED The use of some traditional nonspecific immunosuppressant such as mycophenolate, cyclosporine and azathioprine seems useful in combination with steroid therapy to achieve stable results in the long term; methotrexate is useful as steroid-sparing medications and in steroid resistant or intolerant patients. In recent years, many scientific reports have showed the effectiveness of biological immunosuppressive agents in the management of TED. Etanercept, adalimumab, and tocilizumab have shown to be effective in reduction of the inflammatory signs with the possible advantage to prevent relapse of the disease. Particularly Tociliuzumab seems very effective as second line therapy, after steroid failure. Teprotumumab may control the disease activity and it seems to be very effective in preventing severity disease progression. Infliximab might be useful in severe TED with optic nerve compression resistant to steroid and decompression. Indeed, the actual incidence of adverse effects is not well assessed yet, therefore the use should be limited at those cases that really need an alternative therapy to steroid, handled by an expert multidisciplinary team.

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  1. Department of Neuroscience, University of Naples -Federico II, Naples, Italy and, - Orbital Unit-King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    • Diego Strianese
  2. Department of Translational Medical Sciences and Center for Basic and Clinical Immunology Research, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy

    • Francesca Rossi


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Correspondence to Diego Strianese.

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