This systematic review aimed to evaluate the influence of the nature of diet (vegan, vegetarian, and omnivore) on the oral health status in adults.
This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed using the PRISMA guidelines. Electronic databases [PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL], online search engines (Google Scholar), research portals, and hand searches were performed systematically to identify studies. The last literature search was performed February 1st, 2021. Studies were included if they reported on the influence of the nature of diet on the oral health status (oral hygiene, periodontal health, dental status, and salivary function) in adults, by two investigators. Inter-investigator reliability was evaluated using Kappa (κ) statistics. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020211567.
Twenty-two studies were included for data extraction and final analysis. The meta-analysis revealed that the bleeding on probing measure was higher in omnivores (Z = −4.057, p < 0.0001; 95% CI: −0.684, −0.238; I2 = 0.0%) and the overall periodontal health was significantly better in vegan/vegetarians than omnivores (Z = −2.632, p = 0.008; 95% CI: −0.274, −0.073; I2 = 29.7%). Vegan/vegetarians demonstrated more dental erosion (Z = 3.325, p = 0.001; 95% CI: 0.170, 0.659; I2 = 0.0%). In adults over 60 years old, the prevalence of caries was higher in omnivores (Z = 3.244, p = 0.001; 95% CI: 0.092, 0.371; I2 = 0.0%), while complete edentulism was more prevalent in vegetarians (Z = −4.147, p < 0.0001; 95% CI: −0.550, −0.197; I2 = 0.0%).
This review reveals that adults on an omnivore diet may be associated with a higher risk for periodontal problems and dental caries, while vegetarians/vegans may be associated with a higher risk for dental erosion.
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The authors wish to thank Mrs. Elena van der Heijden from the Clinic of General, Special Care and Geriatric Dentistry for her help in translating and guidance with studies published in Russian language.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Azzola, L.G., Fankhauser, N. & Srinivasan, M. Influence of the vegan, vegetarian and omnivore diet on the oral health status in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Evid Based Dent 24, 43–44 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41432-023-00853-z