Epidemiology

Longitudinal associations of dietary patterns with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in older adults: the TASOAC study

Abstract

Background/objectives

To derive dietary patterns and examine their longitudinal associations with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in the Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort.

Subjects/methods

This is a corrected analysis of a retracted paper. We followed 1098 adults aged ≥50 years for 5 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Baseline dietary patterns were identified using exploratory factor analysis and scores at each time point calculated using the weighted sum score method. Associations of energy-adjusted dietary pattern scores with participant characteristics were assessed using linear mixed-effects models.

Results

The four dietary patterns identified were: fruit and vegetable (vegetables, potatoes, fruits); animal protein (poultry, red meats, fish); snack (snacks, sweets, nuts); western (meat pies, hamburgers, pizzas). Fruit and vegetable pattern scores were lower in men and current smokers at baseline. Animal protein scores were lower in older and retired people but higher in men and smokers at baseline. The sex difference in animal protein score increased over time (p= 0.012). At baseline, snack score was positively associated with age and physical activity, but lower in men and current smokers. The effect of age on snack score lessened over time (p= 0.035). Western scores were lower in older people but higher in men, current smokers and those living in disadvantaged areas at baseline. The effect of age on western score reduced over time (p= 0.001).

Conclusions

The higher scores for healthy and/or lower scores for unhealthy patterns in men, smokers, retirees and those experiencing social disadvantage suggest these could be target groups for interventions to improve diet quality in older adults.

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Fig. 1
Fig. 2: The energy-adjusted dietary pattern scores.

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Acknowledgements

We thank all organizations that have provided funding for this research.

Funding

National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (302204); Arthritis Foundation of Australia (MRI0616); Tasmanian Community Fund (D0015018); Masonic Centenary Medical Research Foundation; and University of Tasmania Institutional Research Grants Scheme (D0015019). SB-O was supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia Career Development Fellowship (GNT1107510). HHN is supported by the scholarship of University of Tasmania. FW was supported by an Arthritis Foundation Australia—Australian Rheumatology Association Heald Fellowship, funded by the Australian Rheumatology Association and Vincent Fairfax Family Foundation. FW is supported by a NHMRC Early Career Fellowship (APP1158661). GJ is supported by a NHMRC Practitioner Fellowship (1117037).

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TW contributed to developing the research proposal and data analysis. GJ, Chief Investigator of TASOAC contributed access to the study, expertize in identifying exposures, confounders and outcomes. KW contributed to the design and implementation of the data analysis. WO provided advice relating to interpretation of the dietary patterns identified in this study and of the study results. FW contributed to the interpretation of findings. SB-O cross-matched and coded the SEIFA data, and contributed to the interpretation of findings relating to those data. HHN wrote the research proposal and manuscript, analyzed and interpreted the data, and edited the manuscript for publication. All authors contributed to the writing and revision of the manuscript for publication.

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Correspondence to Tania Winzenberg.

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Nguyen, H.H., Wu, F., Oddy, W.H. et al. Longitudinal associations of dietary patterns with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in older adults: the TASOAC study. Eur J Clin Nutr (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-020-00802-4

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