The association of calcium intake with risk of developing hypertension in the general population has not been established yet. We systematically searched PubMed and Scopus databases up to February 2018 to find prospective observational studies investigating the association of calcium intake with risk of developing hypertension. The reported risk estimates were pooled using a random-effects model. Eight prospective cohort studies (248,398 participants and 30,838 cases) were included. Seven studies measured dietary calcium intake, but one study measured total calcium intake (calcium from food and supplements). A significant inverse association was found for the highest versus lowest category of calcium intake (relative risk: 0.89, 95%CI: 0.86, 0.93; I2 = 0%, n = 8), and for each 500 mg/d increment (relative risk: 0.93, 95%CI: 0.90, 0.97; I2 = 64%, n = 7). Summary results were the same with the main analyses when the analyses were restricted only to dietary calcium intake. A nonlinear dose–response meta-analysis exhibited a linear inverse association, with a somewhat steeper trend within the low and moderate intakes. In conclusion, higher dietary calcium intake, independent of adiposity and intake of other blood pressure-related minerals, is slightly associated with a lower risk of developing hypertension.
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This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Research idea and study design: A.J., M.S.Z.; data acquisition: A.J., M.S.Z.; data analysis/interpretation: A.J., M.S.Z.; statistical analysis: A.J., supervision: A.J., A.J. is the guarantor. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript. All authors had full access to all the data and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Jayedi, A., Zargar, M.S. Dietary calcium intake and hypertension risk: a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Eur J Clin Nutr 73, 969–978 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-018-0275-y
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