Siegel, R. L., Miller, K. D. & Jemal, A. Cancer statistics, 2018. CA A Cancer J. Clin. 68, 7–30 (2018).
Razumilava, N. & Gores, G. J. Cholangiocarcinoma. Lancet 383, 2168–2179 (2014).
Misra, S., Chaturvedi, A., Misra, N. C. & Sharma, I. D. Carcinoma of the gallbladder. Lancet Oncol. 4, 167–176 (2003).
Okusaka, T. et al. Phase II study of single-agent gemcitabine in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 57, 647–653 (2006).
Yonemoto, N. et al. A multi-centre retrospective analysis of survival benefits of chemotherapy for unresectable biliary tract cancer. Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol. 37, 843–851 (2007).
Valle, J. et al. Cisplatin plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine for biliary tract cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 362, 1273–1281 (2010).
Okusaka, T. et al. Gemcitabine alone or in combination with cisplatin in patients with biliary tract cancer: a comparative multicentre study in Japan. Br. J. Cancer 103, 469–474 (2010).
Kim, M. J. et al. Gemcitabine-based versus fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy with or without platinum in unresectable biliary tract cancer: a retrospective study. BMC Cancer 8, 374 (2008).
Kim, B. J. et al. Efficacy of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer after failure of gemcitabine plus cisplatin: retrospective analysis of 321 patients. Br. J. Cancer 116, 561–567 (2017).
Kobayashi, S. et al. Phase II study of fixed dose-rate gemcitabine plus S-1 as a second-line treatment for advanced biliary tract cancer. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 80, 1189–1196 (2017).
Jung, J. H. et al. Combination therapy with capecitabine and cisplatin as second-line chemotherapy for advanced biliary tract cancer. Chemotherapy 62, 361–366 (2017).
Kim, R. et al. Phase 2 study of combination SPI-1620 with docetaxel as second-line advanced biliary tract cancer treatment. Br. J. Cancer 117, 189–194 (2017).
Venturini, M. et al. Chemoembolization with drug eluting beads preloaded with irinotecan (DEBIRI) vs doxorubicin (DEBDOX) as a second line treatment for liver metastases from cholangiocarcinoma: a preliminary study. Br. J. Radiol. 89, 20160247 (2016).
Endlicher, E. et al. Irinotecan plus gemcitabine and fluorouracil in advanced biliary tract cancer: a retrospective study. Digestion 93, 229–233 (2016).
Sasaki, T. et al. A pilot study of salvage irinotecan monotherapy for advanced biliary tract cancer. Anticancer Res. 33, 2619–2622 (2013).
Ramaswamy, A. et al. Second-line palliative chemotherapy in advanced gall bladder cancer, CAP-IRI: safe and effective option. J. Gastrointest. Cancer 47, 305–312 (2016).
Primrose J. N. F. R., Palmer D. H. Adjuvant capecitabine for biliary tract cancer: The BILCAP Randomized Study. ASCO Annual Meeting 2017. Abstract 4006.
Simon, R., Wittes, R. E. & Ellenberg, S. S. Randomized phase II clinical trials. Cancer Treat. Rep. 69, 1375–1381 (1985).
Brieau, B. et al. Second-line chemotherapy for advanced biliary tract cancer after failure of the gemcitabine-platinum combination: a large multicentre study by the Association des Gastro-Enterologues Oncologues. Cancer 121, 3290–3297 (2015).
Fornaro, L. et al. Second-line chemotherapy in advanced biliary cancer progressed to first-line platinum-gemcitabine combination: a multicentre survey and pooled analysis with published data. J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 34, 156 (2015).
Lamarca, A., Hubner, R. A., David Ryder, W. & Valle, J. W. Second-line chemotherapy in advanced biliary cancer: a systematic review. Ann. Oncol. 25, 2328–2338 (2014).
Larsen, F. O., Markussen, A., Diness, L. V. & Nielsen, D. Efficacy and safety of capecitabine, irinotecan, gemcitabine, and bevacizumab as second-line treatment in advanced biliary tract cancer: a phase II study. Oncology 94, 19–24 (2017).
Woo, S. M. et al. Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus capecitabine plus cisplatin as first-line chemotherapy for advanced biliary tract cancer: a retrospective cohort study. Chemotherapy 59, 232–238 (2013).
Lee, J., Hong, T. H., Lee, I. S., You, Y. K. & Lee, M. A. Comparison of the efficacy between gemcitabine-cisplatin and capecitabine-cisplatin combination chemotherapy for advanced biliary tract. Cancer Cancer Res. Treat. 47, 259–265 (2015).
Riechelmann, R. P., Townsley, C. A., Chin, S. N., Pond, G. R. & Knox, J. J. Expanded phase II trial of gemcitabine and capecitabine for advanced biliary cancer. Cancer 110, 1307–1312 (2007).
Fuchs, C. S. et al. Randomized, controlled trial of irinotecan plus infusional, bolus, or oral fluoropyrimidines in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: results from the BICC-C Study. J. Clin. Oncol. 25, 4779–4786 (2007).
Schmiegel, W. et al. Capecitabine/irinotecan or capecitabine/oxaliplatin in combination with bevacizumab is effective and safe as first-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer: a randomized phase II study of the AIO colorectal study group. Ann. Oncol. 24, 1580–1587 (2013).
Kotaka, M. et al. Study protocol of the Asian XELIRI ProjecT (AXEPT): a multinational, randomized, non-inferiority, phase III trial of second-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer, comparing the efficacy and safety of XELIRI with or without bevacizumab versus FOLFIRI with or without bevacizumab. Chin. J. Cancer 35, 102 (2016).
Hamamoto, Y. et al. A phase I/II study of XELIRI plus bevacizumab as second-line chemotherapy for Japanese patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (BIX study). Oncologist 19, 1131–1132 (2014).
Kang, E. J. et al. Prognostic factors for the selection of patients eligible for second-line chemotherapy in advanced biliary tract cancer. Chemotherapy 60, 91–98 (2014).
Fornaro, L. et al. Multivariate prognostic factors analysis for second-line chemotherapy in advanced biliary tract cancer. Br. J. Cancer 110, 2165–2169 (2014).