Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Centric relation and increasing the occlusal vertical dimension: concepts and clinical techniques - part one

Abstract

This article explores the theoretical aspects and clinical procedures involved in recording centric relation. Established clinical techniques to record centric relation are considered and described in part one. The second article considers more recent concepts of centric relation and clinical techniques to record it. The basis of centric relation to increase the occlusal vertical dimension and clinical aspects of increasing the occlusal vertical dimension are considered.

Key points

  • Considers the theoretical concepts of centric relation and increasing the occlusal vertical dimension, and how this can be achieved in clinical practice.

  • Describes established techniques for recording centric relation and their potential advantages and limitations.

  • Introduces more recent concepts in recording centric relation and their potential advantages and limitations.

  • Presents guidelines for recording centric relation and increasing the occlusal vertical dimension, using more recent concepts and techniques.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14

References

  1. 1.

    Kevshad A, Winstanley R B. An appraisal of the literature on centric relation. Part I. J Oral Rehabil 2000; 27: 823-833.

  2. 2.

    Kevshad A, Winstanley R B. An appraisal of the literature on centric relation. Part II. J Oral Rehabil 2000; 27: 1013-1023.

  3. 3.

    Kevshad A, Winstanley R B. An appraisal of the literature on centric relation. Part III. J Oral Rehabil 2001; 28: 55-63.

  4. 4.

    O'Carrol E, Leung A, Fine P D, Boniface D, Louca C. The teaching of occlusion in undergraduate dental schools in the UK and Ireland. Br Dent J 2019; 227: 512-517.

  5. 5.

    Esposito C J, Farman A G, Veal S J. Occlusion in the dental curriculum: 1980-1981. J Prosthet Dent 1983; 4: 419-426.

  6. 6.

    Hindle J R, Craddock J L. The use of articulators in UK dental schools. Eur J Dent Educ 2006; 10: 197-203.

  7. 7.

    Ruiz J-L. The three golden rules of occlusion. Dent Today 2010; 29: 92-93.

  8. 8.

    The Academy of Prosthodontics. Glossary of prosthodontic terms. J Prosthet Dent 1994; 71: 40-116.

  9. 9.

    The Academy of Prosthodontics. The glossary of prosthodontic terms: ninth edition. J Prosthet Dent 2017; DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2016.12.001.

  10. 10.

    Haemmings K W, Darbar U R, Vaughan S. Tooth wear treated with direct composite restorations at an increased vertical dimension at 30 months. J Prosthet Dent 2000; 83: 287-293.

  11. 11.

    Helkimo M. Zarb G A, Bergman B, Clayton J A, MacKay H F (eds) Prosthodontic treatment of partially edentulous patients. Various centric positions and methods of recording them. pp 171-187. St Louis: C. V. Mosby, 1978.

  12. 12.

    Ramfjord S P, Ash M M. Occlusion. 4th ed. Philadephia: W. B. Saunders Co, 1995.

  13. 13.

    Wise M D. Occlusion and restorative dentistry for the general practitioner. Part 2 - Examination of the occlusion and fabrication of study casts. Br Dent J 1982; 152: 160-165.

  14. 14.

    Hassall D C. The functional aesthetic diagnostic wax up. Dentistry 2017; 32-33.

  15. 15.

    Forsell H, Kalso E, Kokela P, Vahmanen R, Puuka P, Alanen P. Occlusal treatments in temporomandibular disorders: a qualitative systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Pain 1999; 83: 549-561.

  16. 16.

    Davies S, Grey R M J, Whitehead S A. Good occlusal practice in advanced restorative dentistry. Br Dent J 2001; 8: 421-434.

  17. 17.

    Ingervall B, Helkimo M, Carlsson G E. Recording of the retruded position of the mandible with application of varying external pressure to the lower jaw in man. Arch Oral Biol 1971; 16: 1165-1172.

  18. 18.

    Omar R, Wise M D. Mandibular flexure associated with applied muscle force in the retruded axis position. J Oral Rehabil 1981; 8: 209-220.

  19. 19.

    Teo C S, Wise M D. Comparison of retruded axis articulator mountings with and without applied muscle force. J Oral Rehabil 1981; 8: 363-376.

  20. 20.

    Lundeen H C. Centric relation records: the effect of muscle action. J Prosthet Dent 1974; 31: 244-253.

  21. 21.

    Long J H. Locating centric relation with a leaf gauge. J Prosthet Dent 1965; 14: 492-505.

  22. 22.

    Myers M L. Centric relation records-historical review. J Prosthet Dent 1982; 47: 141-145.

  23. 23.

    Williamson E H, Steinke R M, Morse P R, Swift T R. Centric relation: A comparison of muscle-determined position and operator guidance. Am J Orthod 1980; 77: 133-145.

  24. 24.

    Dawson P E. Functional Occlusion: From TMJ to Smile design. 1st ed. St Louis: Mosby Elsevier, 2007.

  25. 25.

    Hassall D C. Tooth surface loss (part one). J Private Dent 2014; 19: 62-65.

  26. 26.

    Hassall D C. Sort-term orthodontics and occlusal disorders. J Priv Dent 2015; 73-75.

  27. 27.

    Long J H. Location of the terminal hinge axis by intra-oral means. J Prosthet Dent 1970; 23: 608-610.

  28. 28.

    Woelfel J B. A new device for accurately recording centric relation. J Prosthet Dent 1986; 56: 716-727.

  29. 29.

    Hassall D C. Current concepts in aesthetic restorative dentistry. J Priv Dent 2018; 58-60.

  30. 30.

    Bissasu M. Use of the tongue for recording centric relation for edentulous patients. J Prosthet Dent 1999; 82: 369-370.

  31. 31.

    Gysi A. The problem of articulation. Dent Cosmos 1910; 52: 1-19.

  32. 32.

    Fereday R C. Francis Balkwill and the physiology of mastication. Br Dent J 1994; 176: 386-393.

  33. 33.

    Wilson P H R, Banjeree A. Recording the retruded contact position: a review of clinical techniques. Br Dent J 2004; 196: 395-402.

  34. 34.

    Azarbal M J. Comparison of myo-monitor centric relation position to centric relation and centric occlusion. J Prosthet Dent 1997; 38: 331-337.

  35. 35.

    Baba K, Tsukiyama Y, Clark G. Reliability, validity and utility of various occlusal measurement methods and techniques. J Prosthet Dent 2000; 83: 83-89.

  36. 36.

    Dao T. Can electric stimulation be used to establish a physiologic occlusal position? J Prosthet Dent 1988; 60: 509-514.

  37. 37.

    Roth R H. Functional occlusion for the orthodontist. Clin Orthod 1981; 15: 32-51.

  38. 38.

    Wood D P, Elliot R W. Reproducibility of the centric relation bite registration technique. Angle Ortho 1994; 64: 211-220.

  39. 39.

    Utt T W, Meyeres Jr C E, Wierzba T F, Hondrum S O. A Three dimensional comparison of condylar position changes between centric relation and centric occlusion using the mandibular position indicator. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1995; 107: 298-308.

  40. 40.

    Schmitt M E, Kulbersh R, Freeland T, Bever K, Pink F E. Reproducibility of the Roth power centric in determining centric relation. Semin Orthod 2003; 9: 102-108.

  41. 41.

    Lucia V O. Centric relation, theory and practice. J Prosthet Dent 1960; 10: 849-855.

  42. 42.

    Celenza F V. The theory and clinical management of centric positions II. Centric relation and centric relation occlusion. Int J Perio Rest Dent 1984; 4: 62-66.

  43. 43.

    Dawson P E. Evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of occlusal problems. St Louis: C. V. Mosby, 1979.

  44. 44.

    Weinberg L A. Physiologic objective of reconstruction techniques. J Prosthet Dent 1960; 10: 711-724.

  45. 45.

    Keshvad A, Winstanley R B. Comparison of the replicability of routinely used centric relation registration techniques. J Prosthodont 2003; 12: 90-101.

  46. 46.

    Mongini F. Anatomic and clinical evaluation of the relationship between the temporomandibular joint and occlusion. J Prosthet Dent 1977; 38: 539-551.

  47. 47.

    Wang M Q, He J J, Li G, Widmalm S E. The effect of physiological non balanced occlusion on the thickness of the temporomandibular joint disc: a pilot autopsy study. J Prosthet Dent 2008; 99: 148-152.

  48. 48.

    Jayne D. A deprogrammer for occlusal analysis and simplified accurate cast mounting. J Cos Dent 2006; 21: 97-104.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dominic Hassall.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hassall, D. Centric relation and increasing the occlusal vertical dimension: concepts and clinical techniques - part one. Br Dent J 230, 17–22 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41415-020-2502-x

Download citation

Search

Quick links