In order to best use available resources, the dental workforce needs to be sufficiently skilled to provide the correct treatment in the right place in the patient pathway, without need for escalation to secondary care. Education is a means to improve quality of healthcare with significance being placed on the proficiency of teaching and effectiveness of learning. The aim is to make the most efficient use of resources to upskill the existing workforce without significant reduction in the services that can be provided during training. With increasing academic demands on the undergraduate curriculum, there may be an expectation that general dental practitioners involved in vocational training now have a larger role to play in providing clinical training for the graduating dentists of the future. With this in mind, this article provides a narrative overview of the concepts to be considered in dental education and training. More education and training activities may be expected to take place in the workplace; therefore general dental practitioners may be at the forefront of providing high quality practice-based dental education and training in the future.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $4.96 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Boyle S. United Kingdom (England) Health system review. Health Syst Trans 2011; 13: Available at http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/302001/UK-HiT.pdf (accessed November 2018).
Centre for Workforce Intelligence. Securing the Future Workforce Supply: dental care professionals stocktake. 2014. Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/507376/CfWI_ Dental_care_professionals_stocktake.pdf (accessed July 2016).
NHS England. Introductory Guide for Commissioning Dental Specialties. 2015. Available at https://www.england.nhs.uk/commissioning/wp-content/uploads/sites/12/2015/09/intro-guide-comms-dent-specl.pdf (accessed May 2018).
NHS England. Guide for Commissioning Oral Surgery and Oral Medicine Specialties. 2015. Available at https://www.england.nhs.uk/commissioning/wp-content/uploads/sites/12/2015/09/guid-comms-oral.pdf (accessed May 2016).
NHS England. Guide for Commissioning Orthodontics. 2015. Available at https://www.england.nhs.uk/commissioning/wp-content/uploads/sites/12/2015/09/guid-comms-orthodontics.pdf (accessed May 2016).
NHS England. Guides for commissioning dental specialties - Special Care Dentistry. 2015. Available: https://www.england.nhs.uk/commissioning/wp-content/uploads/sites/12/2015/09/guid-comms-specl-care-dentstry.pdf (accessed May 2016).
Department of Health/FGDP UK. Guidelines for the appointment of Dentists with Special Interests (DwSIs) in Endodontics. London. 2006. Available at http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130124072759/http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4133752.pdf accessed June 2016).
Department of Health/FGDPUK. Primary Care Contracting. Dentists with Special Interests: a step by step guide to setting up a DwSI service - London. 2006b.
Department of Health/FGDP UK. Guidelines for the appointment of Dentists with Special Interests (DwSIs) in Orthodontics. 2006. Available at http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130124072807/http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4133859.pdf accessed June 2016).
Department of Health/FGDP UK. Guidelines for the appointment of Dentists with Special Interests (DwSIs) in Periodontics. 2006. Available at https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20060802141244/http://www.dh.gov.uk/PublicationsAndStatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidanceArticle/fs/en?CONTENT_ID=4133861&chk=afREor (accessed June 2016).
Department of Health/FGDP UK. Guidelines for the appointment of Dentists with Special Interests (DwSIs) in Minor Oral Surgery. 2006. Available at https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20060802141244/http://www.dh.gov.uk/PublicationsAndStatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidanceArticle/fs/en?CONTENT_ID=4133861&chk=afREor (accessed June 2016).
Department of Health/FGDP UK. Guidelines for the Appointment of Dentists with a Special Interest (DwSI) in Conscious Sedation. 2007. Available at http://s540821202.websitehome.co.uk/Wordpress2/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/dh-guidelines08.pdf (accessed June 2016).
NHS Primary Care Contracting/FGDP UK. Guidelines for the appointment of Dentists with Special Interests (DwSIs) in Prison Dentistry. 2007. Available at https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20080527195237/http:/www.primarycarecontracting.nhs.uk/uploads/Dentistry/november_07/nhspcc_denistry_prisonsaw02.pdf (accessed June 2016).
Department of Health/Dental and Optical Services Division/FGDP (UK). National Guidelines for the appointment of Dentists with a Special Interest (DwSI) in Special Care Dentistry. 2008. Available at http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130124045531/http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/documents/digitalasset/dh_096467.pdf (accessed June 2016).
Department of Health/Faculty of General Dental Practitioners United Kingdom (FGDP UK). Implementing a Scheme for Dentists with Special Interests (DwSIs). 2004. Available at http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20120503230817/http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4083120.pdf (accessed August 2016).
Committee of Postgraduate Dental Deans and Directors (COPDEND) UK. Dental Foundation Training Curriculum 2015. Available at http://www.copdend.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Curriculum-2016-Printable-reverse-colourway.pdf (accessed October 2018).
Darzi A. High Quality of Care for All: NHS Next Stage Review Final Report. Available at http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130103013133tf_/http://www.dh.gov.uk/health/category/publications/reports-publications/ (accessed August 2016).
Steele J. NHS dental services in England: An independent review led by Professor Jimmy Steele. 2009. Available at http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130124050405/http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/documents/digitalasset/dh_101180.pdf (accessed July 2016).
Campbell, S, Tickle M. What is quality primary dental care? Br Dent J 2013; 215: 135-139.
Tickle, M, Campbell S. How do we measure quality in primary dental care? Br Dent J 2013; 215: 183-187.
Campbell S. Tickle M. How do we improve quality in primary dental care? Br Dent J 2013;215: 239-243.
Bloom B S. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. New York: David McKay Co Inc., 1956.
Darzi, A, Mackay S. Assessment of surgical competence. Qual Health Care 2001; 10(suppl II): ii64-ii69.
Fox D. Personal theories of teaching. Studi High Educ 1983; 8: 151-163.
Mackay, S, Datta, V, Morgan, P et al. Competence day: development of a panel of objective assessment tasks for senior house officers at MRCS level. Br J Surg 2001; 88(suppl1): 46.
Health and Social Care Act. (Commencement No.2 and Transitional, Savings and Transitory Provisions) Order 2012. Available at http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2012/2657/pdfs/uksi_20122657_en.pdf (accessed May 2016).
Health Education England. Workforce Plan for England Proposed Education and Training Commissions for 2014/15. Available at https://www.hee.nhs.uk/sites/default/files/documents/Workforce-planning-guidance-2014-15.pdf (accessed August 2016).
Health Education England Framework 15. Health Education England Strategic Framework 2014-2029. Available at https://www.hee.nhs.uk/sites/default/files/documents/HEE%20strategic%20framework%202017_1.pdf (accessed July 2016).
Department of Health. Five-Year Forward View. 2014. Available: https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/5yfv-web.pdf (accessed August 2016).
Tickle M, Mcdonald R, Franklin J, Aggarwal V R, Milsom K, Reeves D. Paying for the wrong kind of performance? Financial incentives and behaviour changes in NHS dentistry 1992-2009. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2011; 39: 465-473.
Tanalp J, Güven E P, Oktay I. Evaluation of dental students' perception and self-confidence levels regarding endodontic treatment. Eur J Dent. 2013; 7: 218-224.
Davey J, Bryant S T, Dummer P M H. The confidence of undergraduate dental students when performing root canal treatment and their perception of the quality of endodontic education. Eur J Dent Educ 2015; 19: 229-234.
General Dental Council. Preparing for practice: Dental team learning outcomes for registration (2015 revised edition). 2015. Available at https://www.gdc-uk.org/professionals/students-and-trainees/learning-outcomes (accessed August 2016).
Qualtrough A J E. Undergraduate endodontic education: what are the challenges? Br Dent J 2014; 216: 361-364.
Holt V P. The need for leadership and vision in dentistry. A personal view. Prim Dent Care 2008; 15: 113-119.
Marlow B. Inevitable de-skilling. Br Dent J 2012; 212: 303.
Mosedale, R, Batchelor. P. Dental Specialist Lists: Are They Necessary? Prim Dent Care 2012; 19: 111-115.
D'Cruz L. Have we been short changing patients for the last 20 years? Br Dent J 2013; 215: 471-481.
Stock C J. Endodontics in the UK 1991: an overview. Int Endod J 1991; 24: 148-154.
Ghotane S G, Al-Haboubi M, Kendall N, Robertson C, Gallagher J E. Dentists with enhanced skills (Special Interest) in Endodontics: gatekeepers views in London. BMC Oral Health 2015; 15: 110.
Al-Haboubi, M, Newton, P, Gallagher J E. Meeting Patient and Professional Needs: Views of Stakeholders on a Training Initiative for DwSIs in Endodontics in London. Prim Dent J 2016; 5: 54-65.
Clark J D, Robertson L J, Harden R M. The specification of learning outcomes in dentistry. Br Dent J 2003; 196: 289-294.
General Dental Council. The First Five Years. Third Edition (Interim). 2008. Available at https://www.gdc-uk.org/api/files/TFFYthirdeditionfinal1[1 (accessed August 2016).
Dahlström, L, Molander, A, Reit C. The impact of a continuing education programme on the adoption of nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation and root-filling quality among a group of Swedish general dental practitioners. Eur J Dent Educ 2015; 19: 23-30.
Koch M. On implementation of an Endodontic Programme. Swed Dent J Suppl 2013; 230: 9-97.
Skinner B G. Science and human Behaviour. New York: Macmillan, 1953.
Skinner B G. The Science of Learning and the art of Teaching. Harvard Educ Rev 1954; 24: 86-97.
Piaget J. Intellectual development from adolescence to adulthood. Hum Dev 1972; 15: 1-12.
Piaget J. To understand is to invent. New York: Grossman, 1973.
Bruner J. The Process of Education. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press, 1960.
Bruner J. The Culture of Education. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press, 1996.
Knowles M S. Andragogy in Action. London: McGraw-Hill, 1984.
Knowles M S. The adult learner: A neglected species. Houston: Gulf, 1973.
Dewey J. Experience and Education. New York: Macmillan, 1983.
Rogers C R. Freedom to Learn. Columbus Ohio: Charles E. Merrill, 1969.
Brown J, Collins A, Duguid P. Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educ Res 1989; 18: 32-42.
Anderson L W, Krathwohl D R, Airasian P W et al. A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessment: a revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Complete Edition). New York: Longman, 2001.
Anderson, Lorin W, Krathwohl, David R. A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: a Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy. New York: Longman Publishing, 2016.
Newble D I, Entwistle N J. Learning styles and approaches: implications for medical education. Med Educ 1986; 20: 162-117.
Marton F, Saljo R. On qualitative differences in learning. II - Outcomes as a function of the learners conception of the task. Br J Educ Psychol 1976; 46: II5-127.
Svensson L. On qualitative differences in learning. III - Study skill and learning. Br J Educ Psychol 1977; 47: 233-243.
Samarakoon L, Fernando T, Rodrigo C, Rajapakse S. Learning styles and approaches to learning among medical undergraduates and postgraduates. BMC Med Educ 2013; 13: 42.
Pintrich P R. A Motivational Science Perspective on the Role of Student Motivation in Learning and Teaching Contexts. J Educ Psychol 2003; 95: 667-686.
Morstain B R, Smart J C. Reasons for Participation in Adult Education Courses: a Multivariate Analysis of Group Differences. Adult Educ Quart 1974; 24: 83-98.
Misch D A. Andragogy and Medical Education: Are Medical Students Internally Motivated to Learn? Adv Health Sci Educ 2002; 7: 153-160.
Abela J. Adult learning theories and medical education: a review. Malta Med J 2009; 21: 11-18.
Lizzio A, Wilson K, Simons R. University Students' Perceptions of the Learning Environment and Academic Outcomes: implications for theory and practice. Stud High Educ 2002; 27: DOI: 10.1080/03075070120099359.
Vansteenkiste M, Lens W, Deci E L. Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Goal Contents in Self-Determination Theory: Another Look at the Quality of Academic Motivation. Educ Psychol 2006; 41: 19-31.
Entwistle N J, Ramsden P. Understanding Student Learning. London: Croom Helm, 1983.
Biggs J, Tang C. Teaching for Quality Learning at University. Fourth Edition. McGraw Hill, 2011.
Holsgrove G, Davies H, Rowley D. Developing and maintaining an assessment system - a PMETB guide to good practice. Postgraduate Medical Education and Training Board. 2007.
Freemantle N, Harvey E L, Wolf F, Grimshaw J M, Grilli R, Bero L A. Printed educational materials: effects on professional practice and healthcare outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; CD000172.
Thomson O'Brien M A, Freemantle N, Oxman A D, Wolf F, Davis D A, Herrin J. Continuing education meetings and workshops: effects of professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; CD003030.
Jamtvedt G, Young J M, Kristoffersen D T, O'Brien M A, Oxman A D. Does telling people what they have been doing change what they do? A systematic review of the effects of audit and feedback. Qual Saf Health Care 2006; 15: 433-436.
Ivers N, Jamtvedt G, Flottorp S et al. Audit and feedback: effects on professional practice and healthcare outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD000259.pub3.
Ivers N M, Sales A, Colquhoun H et al. No more 'business as usual' with audit and feedback interventions: towards an agenda for a reinvigorated intervention. Implementation Sci 2014; 9: 14.
Clancy J M, Lindquist T J, Palik J F, Johnson L A. A comparison of student performance in a simulation clinic and a traditional laboratory environment: tree year results. J Dent Educ 2002; 66: 1331-1337.
Jasinevicius T R, Landers M, Nelson S, Urbankova A. An evaluation of two dental simulation systems: virtual reality versus contemporary non-computer-assisted. J Dent Educ 2004; 68: 1151-1162.
Leblanc V R, Urbankova, A, Hadavi F, Lichtenthal R M. A preliminary study in using virtual reality to train the dental students. J Dent Educ 2004; 68: 378-383.
Boyd E.M, Fales A W. Reflective Learning: key to learning from experience. J Hum Psychol 1983; 23: 99-117.
Buckley S, Coleman J, Davison I et al. The educational effects of portfolios on undergraduate student learning: A Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME) systematic review. BEME Guide No. 11. Med Teach 2009; 31: 282-298.
Dannefer E F, Henson L C. The Portfolio Approach to Competency-Based Assessment at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine. Acad Med 2007; 82: 493-502.
Maggs-Rapport F L, Treasure E T, Chadwick B L. Community dental officers' use and knowledge of restorative techniques for primary molars: an audit of two Trusts in Wales. Int J Paediatr Dent 2000; 10: 133-139.
Specialist Advisory Committee (SAC) In Restorative Dentistry. Curriculum for Speciality Training In Restorative Dentistry (approved by the GDC). 2009. Available: https://www.rcseng.ac.uk/fds/publications-clinical-guidelines/docs/restdent/RestCurric2009.pdf [last accessed 7.8.16].
Specialist Advisory Committee (SAC) In Restorative Dentistry. Curriculum for specialist training in endodontics. 2010. Available at https://www.gdc-uk.org/api/files/RestorativeDentistryCurriculum.pdf (accessed August 2016).
Speciality Advisory Committee (SAC) For Paediatric Dentistry. Speciality training curriculum Paediatric Dentistry. 2009. Available at https://www.gdc-uk.org/api/files/PaediatricDentistry.pdf (accessed August 2016).
Miller G. The assessment of clinical skills/competence/performance. Acad Med 1990; 65(Suppl.): S63-S67.
Regehr G, Macrae H, Reznick R K et al. Comparing the psychometric properties of checklists and global rating scales for assessing performance on an OSCE format examination. Acad Med 1998; 73: 993-997.
Smelt J, Valencia O, Nowell J, Roberts N, Jahangiri M. Agreement between examiners in wet lab assessment of cardiothoracic trainees. RCS Bulletin 2017; 99: 190-194.
Smith S, Wan A, Taffinder N et al. Early experience and validation work with Procedicus VR - the Prosolvia virtual reality shoulder arthroscopy trainer. Stud Health Technol Informat 1999; 62: 337-343.
Mattheos N, Ucer C, Van De Velde T, Nattestad A. Assessment of knowledge and competencies related to implant dentistry in undergraduate and postgraduate university education. Eur J Dent Educ 2009; 13(Suppl.1): 55-65.
Holsgrove G, Davies H. Assessment in the Foundation Programme. In Jackson N, Jamieson A, Khan A (Editors) Assessment in medical education and training. Oxford: Radcliffe, 2007.
Bhugra D (Editor). Workplace Based Assessment in Psychiatry. London; Gaskell, 2007.
General Medical Council/Academy of Medical Royal Colleges. Workplace Based Assessment - A guide for implementation. 2010.
Department of Health. NHS Outcomes Framework 2015/16 at a glance. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/417894/At_a_glance_acc.pdf (accessed June 2016).
Department of Health. Dental contract reform: Prototypes, Overview document. 2015. Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/395384/Refor m_Document.pdf (accessed June 2016).
Grol R, Grimshaw J. From best evidence to best practice: effective implementation of change. Lancet 2003; 362: 1225-1230.
Michie S, Johnston M, Abraham C et al. Making psychological theory useful for implementing evidence based practice: a consensus approach. Qual Saf Health Care 2005; 14: 26-33.
Craig P, Dieppe P, Macintyre S, Michie S, Nazareth I, Petticrew M. Medical Research Council Guidance: Developing and evaluating complex interventions: the new medical research council guidance. BMJ 2008; 337: a1655.
Medical Research Council. Developing and evaluating complex interventions. 2015. Available at https://mrc.ukri.org/documents/pdf/complex-interventions-guidance/ (accessed August 2016).
Eccles M P, Armstrong D, Baker R et al. An implementation research agenda. Implement Sci 2009; 4: 18.
Baker R, Camosso-Stefinovic J, Gillies C et al. Tailored interventions to overcome identified barriers to change: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005470.pub2.
Baker R, Camosso-Stefinovic J, Gillies C et al. Tailored interventions to address determinants of practice. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005470.pub3.
About this article
Cite this article
Eliyas, S., Holsgrove, G. & Gallagher, J. Education and training in craft skills dentistry. Br Dent J 226, 795–800 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41415-019-0368-6
This article is cited by
British Dental Journal (2019)