Huntington’s disease (HD) is one of main neurodegenerative diseases, characterized by striatal atrophy, involuntary movements, and motor incoordination. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), an active ingredient in ginseng, possesses a variety of neuroprotective effects with low toxicity and side effects. In this study, we investigated the potential therapeutic effects of Rg1 in a mouse model of HD and explored the underlying mechanisms. HD was induced in mice by injection of 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP, i.p.) for 4 days. From the first day of 3-NP injection, the mice were administered Rg1 (10, 20, 40 mg·kg−1, p.o.) for 5 days. We showed that oral pretreatment with Rg1 alleviated 3-NP-induced body weight loss and behavioral defects. Furthermore, pretreatment with Rg1 ameliorated 3-NP-induced neuronal loss and ultrastructural morphological damage in the striatum. Moreover, pretreatment with Rg1 reduced 3-NP-induced apoptosis and inhibited the activation of microglia, inflammatory mediators in the striatum. We revealed that Rg1 exerted neuroprotective effects by suppressing 3-NP-induced activation of the MAPKs and NF-κΒ signaling pathways in the striatum. Thus, our results suggest that Rg1 exerts therapeutic effects on 3-NP-induced HD mouse model via suppressing MAPKs and NF-κΒ signaling pathways. Rg1 may be served as a novel therapeutic option for HD.
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This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81773924, 81873026, and 81973499), the CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (CIFMS) (2016-I2M-1-004), the Drug Innovation Major Project (2018ZX09711001-003-005 and 2018ZX09711001-009-013), and the Beijing Key Laboratory of New Drug Mechanisms and Pharmacological Evaluation Study (BZ0150).
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Yang, X., Chu, Sf., Wang, Zz. et al. Ginsenoside Rg1 exerts neuroprotective effects in 3-nitropronpionic acid-induced mouse model of Huntington’s disease via suppressing MAPKs and NF-κB pathways in the striatum. Acta Pharmacol Sin 42, 1409–1421 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-020-00558-4
- Huntington’s disease
- ginsenoside Rg1
- 3-nitropropionic acid
- neuroprotective effects