Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Collecting exhaled breath condensate from non-ventilated preterm-born infants: a modified method

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Configuration of the 3D-printed connector and setup of the infant face mask, 3D-printed connector and R-Tube attachment for the collection of EBC in preterm-born infants.

References

  1. 1.

    Urs, R., Kotecha, S., Hall, G. L. & Simpson, S. J. Persistent and progressive long-term lung disease in survivors of preterm birth. Paediatr. Respir. Rev. 28, 87–94 (2018).

  2. 2.

    Kononikhin, A. S. et al. Exhaled breath condensate analysis from intubated newborns by nano-HPLC coupled to high resolution MS. J. Chromatogr. B 1047, 97–105 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Rosso, M. I. et al. Exhaled breath condensate in intubated neonates—a window into the lung’s glutathione status. Respir. Res. 15.1, 1–9 (2014).

  4. 4.

    Horváth, I. et al. A European Respiratory Society technical standard: exhaled biomarkers in lung disease. Eur. Respir. J. 49 (2017).

  5. 5.

    Muller, W., Morini, F., Eaton, S., Peters, M. & Jaffe, A. Safety and feasibility of exhaled breath condensate collection in ventilated infants and children. Eur. Respir. J. 28, 479–485 (2006).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Moeller, A. et al. Measuring exhaled breath condensates in infants. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 41, 184–187 (2006).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Frey, U., Stocks, J., Coates, A., Sly, P. D. & Bates, J. Specifications for equipment used for infant pulmonary function testing. Eur. Respir. J. 16, 731–740 (2000).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Schulzke, S., Deeptha, K., Sinhal, S., Baldwin, D. & Pillow, J. Nasal versus face mask for multiple‐breath washout technique in preterm infants. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 43, 858–865 (2008).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Horváth, I., Hunt, J. & Barnes, P. J. Exhaled breath condensate: methodological recommendations and unresolved questions. Eur. Respir. J. 26, 523–548 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Carraro, S. et al. Airway metabolic anomalies in adolescents with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: new insights from the metabolomic approach. J. Pediatr. 166, 234–239 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Patel, K., Davis, S. D., Johnson, R. & Esther, C. R. Exhaled breath condensate purines correlate with lung function in infants and preschoolers. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 48, 182–187 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Carpagnano, G. E., Barnes, P. J., Geddes, D. M., Hodson, M. E. & Kharitonov, S. A. Increased leukotriene B4 and interleukin-6 in exhaled breath condensate in cystic fibrosis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167, 1109–1112 (2003).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Yen, E. et al. Exhaled breath condensate nitrite in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J. Neonatal Perinat. Med. 11, 399–407 (2018).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Goldoni, M. et al. Influence of condensation temperature on selected exhaled breath parameters. BMC Pulm. Med. 5.1, 10 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The Preterm Clinical and Functional Outcome (PIFCO: ACTRN126130010627181) Study was funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia (GNT1047689; GNT1057514; RF1077691). The study was also supported by the University of Western Australia, Women and Newborn Health Service of Western Australia, the Child and Adolescent Health Service of Western Australia, the Metropolitan Health Research Infrastructure Fund and Research Training Program Scholarship, Curtin University (to R.U.).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

R.U. collected and analysed the data, interpreted the data, drafted the initial manuscript, performed literature search, drafted the figures and approved the final manuscript as submitted. B.S. collected and analysed the data, reviewed and revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted. B.H. developed the design for the adapted R-Tube and 3D-printed the custom connector, reviewed and revised the manuscript; and approved the final manuscript as submitted. J.J.P. was the principal investigator of the PIFCO study, critically reviewed and revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted. G.L.H. contributed to the overall study design and reviewed and approved the final manuscript as submitted. S.J.S. contributed to the overall study design, critically reviewed and revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shannon J. Simpson.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Consent statement

This study took place as part of the Preterm Infant Clinical and Functional Outcome (PIFCO) study (ACTRN126130010627181) and was approved by the West Australian Women and Newborn Health Service Human Research Ethics Committee (20130193EW), the Child and Adolescent Health Service Human Research Ethics Committee (2014083EP) and the University of Western Australia (RA/3/1/5942). Informed parental written consent was obtained for all participants.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Urs, R., Stoecklin, B., Pillow, J.J. et al. Collecting exhaled breath condensate from non-ventilated preterm-born infants: a modified method. Pediatr Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41390-021-01474-x

Download citation

Search

Quick links