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The lactate receptor GPR81 promotes breast cancer growth via a paracrine mechanism involving antigen-presenting cells in the tumor microenvironment

Abstract

GPR81 is a G-protein-coupled receptor for lactate, which is upregulated in breast cancer and plays an autocrine role to promote tumor growth by tumor cell-derived lactate. Here we asked whether lactate has any paracrine role via activation of GPR81 in cells present in tumor microenvironment to help tumor growth. First, we showed that deletion of Gpr81 suppresses breast cancer growth in a constitutive breast cancer mouse model (MMTV-PyMT-Tg). We then used a syngeneic transplant model by monitoring tumor growth from a mouse breast cancer cell line (AT-3, Gpr81-negative) implanted in mammary fat pad of wild-type mice and Gpr81-null mice. Tumor growth was suppressed in Gpr81-null mice compared with wild-type mice. There were more tumor-infiltrating T cells and MHCIIhi-immune cells in tumors from Gpr81-null mice compared with tumors from wild-type mice. RNA-seq analysis of tumors indicated involvement of immune cells and antigen presentation in Gpr81-dependent tumor growth. Antigen-presenting dendritic cells expressed Gpr81 and activation of this receptor by lactate suppressed cell-surface presentation of MHCII. Activation of Gpr81 in dendritic cells was associated with decreased cAMP, IL-6 and IL-12. These findings suggest that tumor cell-derived lactate activates GPR81 in dendritic cells and prevents presentation of tumor-specific antigens to other immune cells. This paracrine mechanism is complementary to the recently discovered autocrine mechanism in which lactate induces PD-L1 in tumor cells via activation of GPR81 in tumor cells, thus providing an effective means for tumor cells to evade immune system. As such, blockade of GPR81 signaling could boost cancer immunotherapy.

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Fig. 1: Gpr81 expression in the tumor microenvironment increases mammary gland tumor burden in a spontaneous mammary tumor mouse model.
Fig. 2: Gpr81 expression in the tumor microenvironment increases mammary gland tumor burden in a syngeneic mammary tumor mouse model.
Fig. 3: AT-3 tumors transplanted in WT mice display a suppressed immunosurveillance phenotype.
Fig. 4: Gpr81 suppresses MHC II expression in dendritic cells.
Fig. 5: Gpr81 impairs pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion from LPS-stimulated GM-DCs.
Fig. 6: Gpr81-expressing DCs alter T-cell activation, proliferation, and function.
Fig. 7: Specificity of Gpr81 in suppression of MHC II expression.

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Funding

This work was supported by the Welch Endowed Chair in Biochemistry, Grant no. BI-0028, at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (VG) and a grant from the South Plains Foundation (SR).

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Correspondence to Vadivel Ganapathy.

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Brown, T.P., Bhattacharjee, P., Ramachandran, S. et al. The lactate receptor GPR81 promotes breast cancer growth via a paracrine mechanism involving antigen-presenting cells in the tumor microenvironment. Oncogene 39, 3292–3304 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-1216-5

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